Professor Dr. M. Es’ad Cosan (Rh.a.)
In my speech here, acknowledging Muhammad (pbuh) as the first leader of the blessed and holy Islamic state, I will be presenting information regarding the life and personality of the fifth leader, the commander of the believers and the imam of Muslims, the lion of Allah, es-Sayyid Ali bin Abu Talib, who was victorious in the battles he joined as the lion of Allah.
The reason why I choose this subject is that even in the twentieth century Imam Ali a very important person for our society in Turkey. Imam Ali was such a person that although there were some who did not like him; who pulled out their weapons to fight him, and even martyred him in an attack, today all the Muslims love him. That's why I wanted to speak about him. We love all our Muslim brothers. In a broader meaning, we love all people. They are all our brothers and sisters from our ancestor Adam. We want goodness and happiness for them all.
In addition, we want the sense brotherhood Allah established among our fellow Muslims to gain sincerity in our lives. We do not want any conflict or disputes among Muslims. We want to bandage the wounds. We wish goodness for all parties. In view of this objective, Imam Ali stands out as a figure that all Muslims in Turkey respect. Although there are Ashara Mubasharah (ten promised paradise) and Khulafa-i Rashidin (rightly guided successors) in our religion, there are Muslims who do not think positively about the first three of Khulafa-i -Rashidin. However, there are no Muslims who do not think positively about Imam Ali. This is an interesting point to begin with. Ahl al-Sunnah and jamaat show a higher level of manners by respecting Khulafa-i Rashidin as much as Imam Ali and loving Abu Bakr as-Siddik, Umar Al Faruq, Uthman-I Zinnurain. They love Imam Ali in the same manner and on the same level. On the other hand, in terms of belief and sect, our brothers we called Shi’a or Alevi do not show this love and respect for the first three. Some even say things against them, or even curse them. In this respect, Ahl al-Sunnah deserves five-stars, Because they do not distinguish among the Companions as recommended by our Prophet, they consider each of them as important figures. They respect all of them. Therefore, they do not put themselves into dangerous situation spiritually. But others who do not love them; who criticize, reject, or curse them are endangering themselves. In this regard, the behavior of Ahl al-Sunnah in terms of attitude is more superior and the more commendable. The attitude of Islamic groups apart from Ahl al-Sunnah, namely Shi’a and Alevis, is dangerous in spiritual terms. If those they dislike, who they curse are the beloved servants of Allah, then they will be in danger because they will be subjected to torment, infliction and punishment in the afterlife. In this regard, speaking about this issue and describing the scientific aspects of this is an important religious study in Turkey. It is a study that beholds deeds and reward. And this is a beneficial study that requires good-will especially for the Shi’a and Alevi brothers and sisters.
First and foremost, we are the servants of Allah. I want to continue addressing specific points. It is our duty to accept His existence and unity in a sound, proper and genuine manner. As it is revealed that a person who does not accept the existence and unity of Allah will never be accepted into paradise and will be subjected to eternal punishment, the most important thing for us as the sons of Adam is duly recognizing the existence of Allah and duly accepting the unity of Allah. In this respect, the first thing we must do is to learn the Ma’rifatullah. Ma’rifatullah means becoming familiar with Allah and having correct knowledge about Him. To know Allah means being His beloved servant. This is our most important duty. Learning Ma’rifatullah to reach that level is the most important aspect for all the people of the world. It is the same for the Americans, the Europeans, for Turkish, for military members, for traders, for the society, and for intellectuals..
Those who fall into error in this aspect will be subjected to eternal torment. Being members of religions that were once religions of truth, saying, “I am following that path” does not save a person. Because we know from surah Al-Fatiha that Christians are ”dallin” or astray. We are advised not to choose their path. Also, in the Qur'an, Allahu the Almighty reveals;
لَقْدَ كُفْرُ الُينَ قْالُوا َنَّ اللَّهإِ هُوُ الَمَسَيحَ ابَنَ مْرَيَمَ
They have certainly disbelieved who say, "Allah is Christ, the son of Mary.
لثَقَدثَ كِثُفثَرَ الَّينَّ قإِالُوا َنَ اللَّذِهَ َالَ ْلَاَةَ
They have certainly disbelieved who say, “Allah is the third of three.” In other words, those who say He is one of the trinity are disbelievers. 
In which case, the Christian belief is not acceptable, because they are worshiping a human being. They accept a human as God. Therefore, it is also important for them to know the Ma’rifatullah. As the people in Turkey are 99% Muslims, they took the right step in learning about Ma’rifatullah and learning about Allah.
Therefore, their course is not a forbidden path, but rather the correct path that is accepted by Allah. However, when we examine the people we call Muslims in Turkey; when we ask ourselves "what is Islam?"; when we compare the general characteristics of Islam with the characteristics of people in Turkey, from an Islamic point of view some of Muslims here appear to have confused the right path; deviated from faith, and distanced from Islam. It is our duty to show them the truth and advise them to choose the right path; this is the duty of all our Muslim brothers and scholars. From this point of view, as an entire Ummah, we are all responsible for explaining, conveying and spreading the truth.
Allah describes us as an ummah ascribed with such a duty even in our own homes.
kuntum khayra ummatin ukh'rijat lilnnāsi tamurūna bil-maʿrūfi watanhawna ʿani l-munkari watu'minūna bil-lahi
“You are the best nation produced [as an example] for mankind. You enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong and believe in Allah.”
In which case this is the duty of all of us. Besides;
وْلْخَتَىكإِنَ مَنُكْمَ أٌمَّةُ يْدُعْونْ ُلَ الْيَرَ
“And let there be (arising) from you a nation.” The word ”min” has two meanings here. The first is an abstractive meaning; so, you become an ummah. How? Let's be an Ummah who has these qualities. Some also say that the “min” here is a separator. It means a group of you is sufficient to accomplish the task. According to the first, all Muslims are charged with this duty. According to the second, religious scholars who are people who have knowledge on this are assigned to this duty. The first is more correct, as all of us are responsible to an extent for our family and environment. Even if they are not religious scholars, everyone should teach the truth to their children.
Ma’rifatullah is the most important thing to study. It is the most important issue for the journey towards eternal prosperity.
So what is the means of learning Ma’rifatullah? How can a person become familiar with Allah, how can a person know Allah when he cannot see Him?
لَا تْدَرْكُهِ الْأُبَصُارَ وُهَوْ يَدْرُكُ الِأْبُص ارَ
“Vision perceives Him not, but He perceives (all) vision.”  He is the knower of everything.
Therefore, His path is to know the Prophet, his morals and his sunnah. A person will become familiar with the sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad with the collections of hadith al-sharif, he will read these and learn from the primary, strongest source of religion. Even the Holy Quran is learned through the sunnah; the hadith explains the laconic sentences of the Holy Quran.
The first interpreter of the Quran was the Prophet Muhammad. The Prophet was the person who applied the Holy Quran in his daily life in the best possible way. Therefore, we must know the best implementer and know the words of the greatest interpreter. In this respect, we must be familiar with the Prophet. Learning Islamic sciences is essential. Of course, the best of those who learned the knowledge taught by the Prophet are his students. These are people who were close to him, who learned from his morals. We call them the Companions. As in the sentence Alihi wassahbihi, the singular is Companion, Ashab or Sahb. It is our duty to learn about them. What did they learn from the Prophet? What were their views on the essence of religion? This is very important to us. In this respect, I will be explaining about the life and character of one of the most prominent figures among the companions of the Prophet, Imam Ali.
Imam Ali was the closest companion of our Prophet. He was one of the most knowledgeable companions on religious topics. He was a companion who issued fatwas, and served as a judge. He was also a relative of our Prophet, his son-in-law and he also had other qualities.
In this respect, we must learn about Imam Ali.
In social terms, in the twentieth century it is even more important for us, Muslims both in Turkey and outside Turkey, to learn about Imam Ali. Because there is a group of Muslims who say , we are Alevi, we are followers of Imam Ali, we are devoted to Imam Ali. There are some who love Imam Ali, but they say, "We are Ahl al-Sunnah." There is an Alevi circle like this. We have a Shi’a-Alevi group and a Sunni group. And in practical terms these two groups exist. But in reality, there should be no difference between them. There should be no difference both in this country and in the Islam world. But there is a difference; there is contention and confrontation.
In the Islamic world, all Muslims are brothers. Allah reveals in the Qur'an;
إِنَمإِخْا الَمُمِنُؤْونْ َوَّةإِ
“The believers are but brothers.” They are not the enemy of one another. They are nothing but brothers.
Based on this verse of the Quran, we are a group that committed to eliminating this contradiction. Many years ago we had a very productive meeting in Ankara. There we explained that Sunni, Shi'a, and all Muslims are brothers. They must all reach the same understanding. The Holy Quran is clear. There is no need for this separation between us. We used the words of Alevis and Bakri. We said, “there is no difference between Alevis and Bakris. “ One of our previous missions was in Australia.
After the events of Madimak Hotel in Sivas, our Alevi brothers in Australia were very upset and very angry. They reacted very strongly. On radio and television, they used strong language about Islam, the Quran and the Sunnis. And nobody responded. Either nobody could answer or they were not given the chance to answer; and these words were left without response. When I visited Australia they told me about this. I asked:
“Where is this city that has the largest population of these brothers?”
“They said Mildura.” A city in the middle of Australia.
So I said “We'll go to Mildura to talk to these brothers,“ and we traveled to Mildura. We gathered in a meeting room. All our Alevi brothers arrived. Poets, writers, leaders, chairmen from organizations came. I told them;
“Forgive me, I am not saying this to brag. But firstly I'm a descendant of Imam Ali. He is my grandfather, Fatimatu’z Zahra is my grandmother, so I am his descendant.”
Secondly, “In our Naqshbandi order, Jaffar as-Siddiq , who is one of the blessed twelve imams, is my leader, he is someone I respect, he is my elder. He is the teacher of Imam al Azam.” I mean “I am connected to Imam Ali. I am connected to Imam Jaffar as-Siddiq through my sect. I also completed my associate professorship studies on Haji Bektash in university; and it was published. There were citations in journals, newspapers, and in many articles with words of praise. In the commemorative assemblies in the town of Haji Bektashi, quotes were given, and they benefited from my book from my book. I'm a recognized figure in this field.” I said, when you curse the Quran and Islam, you are not classified as an Alevi and you deviate from Islam. I came here to warn you as a descendent of Imam Ali. If you are Alevi, then you should not do this, because Imam Ali did not do this... Then we talked with them for two, two and a half hours, they were very pleased.
I am also pleased. I left them satisfied.
Regarding Imam Ali, the knowledge and oldest historical sources that were compiled in his time are extremely important. I read and benefit from these sources. When something is spoken about, the Islamic source of this is important. Who said this, where did the individual receive this information from?
This is also the case in hadith. “Our Prophet said this.” This person said this. Where did he hear this from? He heard it from so and so...These were all thoroughly examined.
Islamic ethics require conveying the essence and source of words. I also believe it is necessary to work with the same scientific methods to become familiar with Imam Ali; this it is how it should be. I prepared myself believing it is necessary to refer to the primary sources.
Now those who are devoted to Imam Ali are called Alevis.
I want to touch on an important point here: Some people adopt this and they think Sunnis are an enemy of Imam Ali. This is a very big mistake. In both his time and his children’s time, Sunnis were always supporters of Imam Ali. The Umayyads opposed him. Today, there is no one in the world says, “I am Umayyad.”
Who else opposed him?
The Kharijites opposed him. Indeed, Abdurrahman Muljam who martyred Imam Ali was a Kharijite. They do not exist on earth today.
Imam Ali’s blessed son, Sayyid al-Shuhada Imam Hussein was martyred by a Yazid, and his supporters are called “Yazidi.” Today, there is no Yazidis among Muslims.
Today there is not a single Yazidi among the Ahl al-Sunnah, there is not a single Umayyad, there is not a single Kharijite. Indeed, all the Ahl al-Sunnah is Alevi; because they are supporters of Imam Ali. Now our Alevi brothers will be wrong if they react against and criticize the Sunnis where they should in fact be opposing the Yazidis, the Umayyads or the Kharijites. They would have deviated from the actual target. If someone's committed a crime, you must target that individual person. There is someone supporting so and so, it's wrong to target him because he didn't do anything.
We are followers of the Hanafi sect. And this is the case with a majority of Muslims in Turkey. Some are members of Imam al-Shafi's sect. Imam al-Azam was imprisoned for his love and loyalty to Imam Ali. That is why he suffered torment and punishment. In other words, Imam al-Azam is a supporter of Imam Ali, so he is Alevi.
We are the supporters of Imam Ali, so we are also Alevis. Of course, we're not Alevi in every meaning. Because when we look at some of the views and actions of Alevis, we see that they deviate from the path of Imam Ali, and that’s where we draw the line.
"What path do they follow?"
For example, if they do not perform the prayers they are not following the path of Imam Ali, because Imam Ali performed the prayers. Imam Ali had a bequest regarding the prayers. As you know, he was wounded but was martyred two days later. And he made a bequest about prayer during that time. If the Alevis do not perform the prayer, they are not on the path of Imam Ali. If we pray, we are on the path of Imam Ali. This is the first thing.
If the Alevis, the supporters of Imam Ali drink alcohol, drinking alcohol is an offence, a sin. The Quran says, “don't drink alcohol.” There are also people among the Sunnis that drink alcohol.
They say "What can we do, we are addicted, may Allah forgive us."
He drinks, he displays a weakness towards alcohol, he considers this a requirement on his path in life, and according to his own ideas justifies this… No.
A writer from the Cumhuriyet newspaper visited a Bektashi lodge in Albania. He said, “There, they offered me a very nice, unmixed raki“. The writer comes to the lodge, to interview a person and those in the lodge offered him raki. What is this! Imam Ali never did such a thing. So there is a difference here.
Haji Bektash never did such a thing. I conducted studies on Haji Bektashi. In his book he says; “If we drip even a drop of alcohol into a well, the water of that well becomes impure. How is it cleaned, all of the water in the well must be taken out to clean the well from alcohol. Grass will grow where the water is poured because it is wet. I would not even eat the meat of sheep that eat that grass.” As we can see, grass has grown from that water, and it is eaten by sheep, and although the haram is not passed onto the sheep, it does show the seriousness of opposing alcohol.
He has another saying; I am explaining these because they caught my attention, If they put alcohol in a bottle, it is haram, if they take it to the edge of the sea, close the top of the bottle and wash and wash it for a decade, that bottle of alcohol will still will be haram. Because alcohol cannot be purified by washing the outside. When humans have bad habits,, they cannot be purified by washing their bodies, this does not purify their insides, he is giving this as an example to convey the meaning. Both meanings are true. He means “When a person has a bad temperament ablution will not purify him .” And this is correct, but he also says that the alcohol in the bottle is haram, and washing the outside of bottle will not purify it. These are important to prove he was against alcohol. At this point this question comes to mind:
“Why do our Alevi brothers drink alcohol?”
They turned this into a ritual in their sema ceremonies. Baba takes the bowl, drinks from it, then he gives it to them and they drink from it. They drink from the bowl one by one. Where did it this originate from? Why are they not performing the prayers? For example, Jaffar as-Siddiq wrote the book of jurisprudence, Fiqh al-Imam Jaffar as-Siddiq was published in Beirut. It was printed by Shiites. They should read it and see what Jaffar as-Siddiq and Imam Ali said about not performing prayers.
We are relating this to our Alevi brothers because we feel sorry for them, to warn them because we don’t want them to perform sinful acts and we don’t want them to do things that put them in a situation despised by Allah. The first step here is to learn about Imam Ali. We are saying “If you are a follower of Imam Ali, then come and learn what kind of person Imam Ali was.”
If Allah wills, later we will be talking about Haji Bektashi. Then if we have time, we will talk about the 12 Imams. We will be explaining about Jaffar as-Siddiq effendi. Look, we call him effendi, we have great fondness and respect for him, and we say“ Let's get to know them, let's follow their path.”
Let me introduce you briefly to Imam Ali with information I have collected from sound sources.
Imam Ali’s name is Ali. His kunya is Abu-Hasan. Among Arabs, they had both a name and a kunya. The kunye is separate from the name. Abu-Hasan means the father of Hasan. He also had another kunya: Abu-Turab.
On return from a campaign, he laid under a tree, he wanted to rest... The great hero was tired, he was on the ground and his clothes were soiled, that’s why he was called Abu Turab... meaning the father of the soil.
There is another report: He had a dispute with Fatima, daughter of our dear Prophet and went to the mosque and slept there. At that time the Masjids had no carpets. It was covered with palm branches on the top, but the floor of the mosque was clean sand. He laid on the sand. In the meantime, the Prophet Muhammad went to the house of his daughter Fatima. He asked:
"Where is Ali?" She said
“Father, we had a slight disagreement between us. He left the house.”
The Prophet looked in the mosque and saw that Imam Ali had put his head down on the ground sleeping.
He said, "Get up oh Abu Turab!" meaning "Get up soiled one!"
He was so delighted that the Prophet had jokingly complimented him. After this, Imam Ali liked to be called Abu Turab. The father of soil is a humble kunya, and is a reminder of a pleasant memory.
A person has a name, a kunya and a nickname… Among Arabs, while saying someone’s name, they also say his father’s name: Ali bin Abu Talib, “the son of Abu Talib.” Abu Talib is the uncle of the Prophet. He is the Prophet’s uncle who protected him and kept him under his wings.
“What are his nicknames?“
One of them is Haydar“, or Hayder al-Karar. Hayder means lion. Karar means the one who attacks again and again. He does not run from the enemy, he is not afraid, he is brave like a lion, he attacks again and again. And because he was like this in reality, he was called Hayder al-Karar.
Another of his nicknames is Asadullah al-Ghalib. Allah's lion, but the victorious one. He won all the battles in which he participated. In the past, when the armies were confronted for battle, they would form a line on opposite sides. They are lined up on one side, the others on the opposite side, waiting. They held weapons in their hands, and wore armor if they had it. One of them would come forward, either on horse or on foot and say;
I am so and so, I did this, I am a hero because of this, I defeated so many people like this, I have a reputation for this, this is why I have such esteem. If there is anyone brave enough confront me then step forward! This is called Mubharaza. Then a person from the opposite would step forward, make himself apparent, and walk to the center of the two sides alone. The other party also considers who they should send for the battle, and they choose someone from among them. The other one says “You wanted a soldier, here I am, I have also stepped forward to fight." They would fight one by one and both sides stood watching. This was the procedure of old battles, a custom. They do not attack each other immediately, they first enjoy the battle, get excited then the battle would begin... Imam Ali was always victorious no matter who confronted him. Asad means lion. Asadullah; ”Lion of Allah.. He serves Allah's religion. In Surah as-Saff, Allah the Almighty compliments all of us.
يَّاأَيَهَا الَينُ ُامُناوا كَونَو اَّذِنَّذِصَارَ اللَهَ
yāayyuhā alladhīna āmanū kūnū anṣāra l-lahi
“O you who have believed! Be supporters of Allah.” A person feels proud when we say be a supporter of Allah. Allah does not need support. He is capable of everything, He does not need help. So why does it say to be supporters of Allah? Because there is great reward in supporting the religion of Allah, it complements us. Allah rewards those who support His religion. As Imam Ali was also a hero who supported the religion of Allah, he was called Asadullah, the Lion of Allah. A lion, as you know a lion is an animal that fears nothing, attacks everything and defeats everything.
He has another famous nickname: al-Murtaza, Aliyyu’l-Murtaza. Murtaza means-a person with whom Allah is pleased and satisfied. Allah loved him and was pleased with him; The Messenger of Allah loved him, was pleased and satisfied with him; Muslims loved him, were pleased and satisfied with him. Everyone was pleased with him ... They say “Karimallahu Wajahu.” He has a special attribute. When the name Ali is mentioned, this is used in a sentence not used for any other companion.
When we mention the name of the Prophet, we say, “Allahumma salli ala sayyidina Muhammad.” When we mention other prophets, we say “alaihissalam.” When we mention the Companions, we say “radiallahu anh”; if she is a woman, then we say “Radiallahu anha”. If this is two Companions, then we say “radiallahu anhuma”, if more than two, we say “ radiallahu anhum” or “Ridvanullahi Alaihim ajmayn.” We add these supplications to express our respect for those blessed individuals. Imam Ali is also referred to in another way; “Karimallahu Wajhahu”. This means may Allah’s favor be upon his face, He granted him this attribute. Why? Because he accepted Islam before he even reached puberty and never worshipped idols. That is why he was ascribed this attribute. Wajih has 2 meanings.
- It means the face. ”Allah deemed his face noble.“
- It means the individual. Meaning Allah deemed his individuality. Because he was never involved in disbelief, he had a pure individuality.
His mother was Fatima bint Asad radiallahu anhain. Both the daughter-in-law and mother-in-law have the same name.
Fatima bint Asad is the wife of Abu Talib, the uncle of Prophet Muhammad. She had great affection for the Prophet, she looked after him with such care that in the fourth year of the hijrah, when Imam Ali's mother passed away in Medina our Prophet cried and called her ’My mother.’, and said “You wouldn't eat, but you fed me; you would dress me before you got anything for yourself; you took good care of me. May Allah bless you.” This is how she was.
Imam Ali accepted Islam when he was seven, nine, ten or fifteen years old. There are four narrations, but all the sources state that he became a Muslim at a very young age. The soundest narration relates that he became Muslim at the age of 7. When Islam first began to emerge, Imam Ali came to the Prophet Muhammad when he was praying with his dear wife Khadija.
He asked "What are you doing?" The Prophet replied:
“We are worshipping and praying to Allah. There is only one Allah, He is unique there is no one similar to Him. Worshiping idols is wrong. It's not true. Accept this.” He said:
"I'll ask my father." He was to ask Abu Talib. He thought about this all night long. I agree with what the book says.
Did Allah ask my father when He created me? I should also accept the existence of Allah without asking my father. He came and stated that he accepted the existence and oneness of Allah. He became a Muslim at a young age.
"How does Imam Ali consider the Prophet praying with his dear wife Khadija?”
Because our Prophet's uncle Abu Talib was very kind to the Prophet and his uncle had many children, when the Prophet got married he spoke with other relatives and they agreed;
“You take one of his children and we will take one.”
So the Prophet took Imam Ali. He lived in the Prophet’s house like his son.
Imam Ali witnessed all these events. He stood beside the Prophet from an early age.
“So what kind of person was Imam Ali?”
We call appearance “Shamail”. Shamail al-Rasul, Shamail al-Rasulullah. How was the appearance of our Prophet? How was the appearance of Imam Ali?
He was very dark skinned. He wasn’t white, but very dark skinned. His eyes were very big, his eyelashes were long. He could not be classified as tall but shorter, that is, of medium height. For example, Abu-Bakr as-Siddiq was tall, slightly potbellied, well-built and very hairy. Imam Ali was not slim, he was strong and well-built. He had a long, wide beard. His had lost his hair. It used to be black, then turned grey after a certain age. His hair and beard were white.
He sometimes applied henna to his white beard. He had a handsome face; this was a general characteristic of the Prophet and his relatives; they had handsome faces. Our Prophet was more handsome than Prophet Joseph. He had muscular arms. He was well-built, and had a smiling face. He had a good sense of humor. Our Prophet also had a sense of humor at home, but he never joked about something that was not true.
As you know, there are two kinds of jokes: first is a normal joke, second is unfavorable jokes. A joke where they say, "That's not something to joke about!" The Prophet did make jokes at home. Imam Ali also had a good sense of humor. But what they said was never a lie. They did not joke by lying, they spoke the truth. For example, our Prophet told one of the women who was his relative;
"You have white in your eyes." She got worried. When he noticed this he said;
"Doesn't everyone have white in their eyes?"  He said this as a joke.
Imam Ali also has a sense of humor. He was a strong man... He was strong but generally that power made a person a tyrant, an oppressor, but he was calm and gentle, humble, just and wise. He never used his knowledge, strength, influence, position for oppression.
He married Fatima, daughter of the Prophet in the last months of the second year of the immigration. He remained married only to her until her death. After her death, he married other women. He also had concubines. He had 14 sons and 19 daughters. Imam Ali was against family planning. The most famous of his sons are those from Fatima, al-Hassan and al-Hussein. In English, sometimes there is definitive article in front of names, and this is called “harf-i tarif” in Arabic, this is how his parents named him, so it is not Hassan, but al-Hassan, al-Hussein. Zaynab is his daughter, and Umm Kulthum was a young child. Later, they had more children and because they were given the same names, they were called Zaynab al-Kubra and Umm Kulthum al-Kubra. We call Umm Kulthum ‘Ummu Gulsum’ or simply Gulsum. Of course, there is no letter for g-breve in Arabic. The original version is Kulthum. Turks softened it, they add a G with a breve, they used the G like it is in Persian and said Gulsum, but the original name is Kulthum. Zaynab al-Kubra, Umm Kulthum al-Kubra... He had another child called Muhsin, but he died at a very young age. Or he may have been stillborn. Even if a child is stillborn, they name the child so he also becomes a member of the family. In view of this, he had five children: al-Hasan, al-Hussein, Muhsin, Zaynab, Umm Kulthum. These are his children from Fatima tuz-Zahra, the Prophet’s daughter.
Imam Ali is a person praised by Allah in the Qur'an.
ويطعمون الطعام على حبه مسكينا و يتيما واسيرا انما نطعمكم لوجه الله لا نريد منكم جزاء ولا شكورا
Wayuṭ'ʿimūna l-ṭaʿāma ʿalā ḥubbihi mis'kīnan wayatīman wa-asīran. Innamā nuṭ'ʿimukum liwajhi l-lahi lā nurīdu minkum jazāan walā shukūran
This verse was revealed regarding Imam Ali and Fatima.
They were fasting, they were about to break their fast when someone came to the door. They opened the door, they saw a Miskin which means the person who cannot earn an income. Miskin derives from “serenity“ from ”calmness.” Maybe he's incapable of earning a living. This means he was poor, and not able to work. The man said;
"I am hungry, can you give me some food," so they gave all the food they had .
Their food was already not enough to feed one person. If they had more, they would have gave him some of it so all of them could eat. But they were not like us. They gave it all and stayed hungry themselves. The following evening, again they were fasting and were about to break their fast, there was a knock on the door again. This time it was an orphan; he said:
"We have been hungry for days..." Once again, they gave all their food and stayed hungry. They were fasting again, and on the third evening, there was someone knocking on the door again. This time it was a slave; he has no freedom and his master was depriving him of food, he asked his master for food but he refused.
They said “We give you food for Allah's sake. We do not expect anything in return, nor any gratitude for what we provide. Take this and go, we give for the sake of Allah”
Due to this, Allah praised them in the Qur'an. As the Qur’an is our most important source, a person being praised in the Qur’an is extremely important. Because the Qur'an is the word of Allah, Allah is praising the individual.
This is proof that the blessed son-in-law and daughter of Prophet were beloved servants of Allah. And this shows how blessed these people were. Staying hungry for three days... those who have visited Saudi Arabia know, it is more difficult to stay hungry there. One’s blood gets dry. It’s so hot. Fasting there is very difficult. He fasted for three days in a row. These are blessed, great people.
Firstly, he is praised in the Qur’an.
Secondly; he is praised by our Prophet. His first characteristic is without doubt, the characteristic known by everyone, he is one of those promised paradise during his lifetime.
When Uthman bin Mazun (Rh.A) passed away, a woman said;
"You will enter paradise." The Prophet told her;
“Maybe he will enter paradise, but how do you know? Don't say that.” Whereas he was also a mujahideen Muslim. Our Prophet never said “you will enter paradise” to anyone without cause, he never said this randomly.
Imam Ali is one of the ten people given the tidings of paradise before their death, this was revealed by the Prophet when he was informed by Jibrail. In Islamic history these ten people were called “Al Ashara Mubashara bi al Jannah.” The Turkish for this is Asere-i Mubessere. "Ten who were promised Paradise". These are:
Abu Bakr, Umar, Hz. Othman, Imam Ali, Sa'd b. Ebi Vakkas, Said b. Zaid, Talha b. Ubaidullah, Zubair b. Avvam, Abdurrahman b. Avf, Abu Ubaida b. Al-Cerrah al-Rashid radiallahu anhum.
I bring this to the attention of my Alevi brothers. Abu Bakr, Omar and Uthman were promised paradise. Meanwhile, I will convey a word of Aisha, the Prophet’s dear wife. I read this in Dalail al-Khairat and I enjoyed it. Aisha said to Abu Bakr al-Siddiq;
““I had a dream last night. Three moons came from the sky and descended into my room.” Hz. Abu Bakr interpreted the dream saying;
“Glad tidings my daughter! Three people will be buried in this room. These are the most honorable people on earth.” Then the Prophet Muhammad passed away. It is reported that the prophets were buried wherever they passed away. He passed away with his head on Aisha’s knees, they dug his grave and buried him there. The tomb of Prophet is the home of Aisha, in her room. After the burial, Abu Bakr said;
“My dear daughter, you had a dream, this was one of those three moons. This was the best of those moons.” Then who was buried there? Abu Bakr as-Siddik and Omar al-Faruq were buried there. As Omar al-Faruq was too tall, the wall obstructed his burial. They demolished part of the wall, and when they opened the grave below, they extended his feet out of the wall. All three of them are buried there. One of the two moons was Abu Bakr and the other one was Omar (r.a). Another one of the Ashara Mubashara is Imam Ali. This is a great honor. He will enter paradise without any doubt.
Imam Ali participated in all the battles. On the way to the Battle of Tabuk, the Prophet Muhammad told him;
"Stay in Medina, give me your power of representation." He didn't take Imam Ali. They said:
"An army is coming from Byzantium," "Let's go to meet them." They went as far as Tabuk but the Byzantine army did not appear. The Tabuk expedition did not materialize, they returned without the battle taking place. Imam Ali did not join the expedition, he stayed in Medina. When he was told not to go, he was sad and said:
“O Messenger of Allah! Are you leaving me behind to look after the women and children? Do I have to stay behind with the women and children?” The Prophet replied;
"Wouldn't you like to have a position by my side like Aaron's position beside Moses?"
When Moses went up Mount Sinai, he left Aaron behind to look after his community. The Prophet meant “I leave you behind, just like Moses left Aaron behind. Wouldn't you want to be with me as Aaron was with Moses? But know that there is no prophet after me. Yes, you are like Aaron, but you are not a prophet.”
Imam Ali participated in all the battles. He joined the battle of Badr, a battle that occurred suddenly. Not everyone could join the battle of Badr. After Ashara Mubashara, the highest degree among the Companions is those who joined Badr. Sometimes we call them Badri. This means those who participated in the battle of Badr. Imam Ali fought in the battle of Badr. 70 disbelievers were killed there, and many of these were killed by Imam Ali.
I sacrificed an animal on Eid al-Adha. Our Prophet used to practice this sacrifice, so I did too. I cannot sacrifice a chicken, but I sacrificed an animal. Because the Prophet did this. I thought, "What can I do? I will also sacrifice an animal" My heart was beating so fast; I felt sick. I sacrificed the animal. I must inflate it, but I can’t, I have to skin the animal but I can’t.
It's not easy to kill. He killed 20 members of the enemy. This is very important. He was also injured many times in the battle of Uhud. He fought like a hero.
Someone stepped forward in the battle of Khandaq from the opposite side. It was Amr ibn Abd, one of the Quraishi disbelievers. He walked up and down. They referred to him saying "He is equal to an entire battalion." This is what kind of a man he was.
He called out "Is there anyone brave enough to challenge me?" Imam Ali wanted to step forward, but the Prophet told him to stop. No one stepped forward But when he said;
“Isn’t any one of you coming forward, you cowards?” Imam Ali once again wanted to step forward. Again, the Prophet stopped him. He called out for the third time, but nobody had the courage to step forward. He was equal to an entire battalion. Soldiers know how many members there are in a battalion. The man standing opposite is a hero, a warrior equal to a battalion... The third time Imam Ali wanted to fight him again. So the Prophet clothed him with his armor, prayed for him. Then Imam Ali went in front of Amr bin Abd and defeated him. He suffered injuries, but he won the fight.
He is not praised only with words. Events prove that Imam Ali was hero and a warrior. They came to Khaybar. Abu Bakr became commander and attacked Khaybar, but the conquest was not successful. Omar became the commander, he also attacked Khaybar but again there was no conquest. The conquest was delayed. The Prophet said;
”Tomorrow I will give the flag to a person loved by Allah, and who loves Allah." That night nobody could sleep out of curiosity.
“I wonder who the Prophet will give the flag to tomorrow?“
“I dearly wanted to be the one who received the flag from the Messenger of Allah.” Because Allah loved him and he loved Allah, this is what kind of man he was... The next day came. The Prophet looked at the army from head to toe. Everybody was standing up straight in an attempt of attracting the Prophet’s attention. He looked at everyone, but chose none of them. He asked:
“Where is Ali?“ They told him;
“O Messenger of Allah! He has a severe eye pain. He is in the tent.”
He said: “Call him!” Then he prayed for him, and applied some of his blessed saliva on his eye and the pain disappeared instantly. Imam Ali attacked, he even used an iron door to shield himself. He showed great heroism and conquered Khaybar. He is also known as “The Conqueror of Khaybar.” These are both signs of heroism, Allah's love for him and his love for Allah. These two qualities are very important.
A person is so fortunate to be loved by Allah. It's also immensely rewarding for him to love Allah... it is such a great blessing to be the beloved of Allah. Imam Ali was such a person.
“How did the immigrants come to Medina?“
They left all their property and belongings, everything in Mecca and in Medina they had no money. The Prophet made each of the immigrants who came to Medina brothers of one of Medina's Ansari so that they would protect each other. A dedicated brother... All Muslims are brothers, but this was a special kind brotherhood.
We also do this. We enter itiqaf (seclusion) during Ramadan and then draw lots to match pairs of brothers. We're making them dedicated brothers. Whoever a person is matched with, he becomes his itiqaf brother. We tell them to become more involved with one another...
Everybody became brothers. Only Imam Ali was left. He blushed and was sad because he didn’t have a brother. Then the Prophet said;
"I am your brother."
Imam Ali was also a person the Prophet chose as a brother.
Then the Prophet's daughter Fatima is one of the women promised paradise, she is one of the women of paradise. Imam Ali is the husband of Fatima.
All of these are a great honor. It was an honor to be one of those who were guaranteed paradise; to be the husband of Fatima; an honor to be the son-in-law of the Prophet Muhammad, to be the brother of the Prophet Muhammad, to grow up in the house of the Prophet Muhammad, to be praised in the Qur'an, to be honored by the Prophet with the words “Whatever Aaron was to Moses, you are the same to me.” All of these are a great blessing.
He was the Prophet’s scribe of the revelations, and the fifth leader of the state.
Revelations came to our Prophet. There were various forms of revelation; they were sometimes brought by Jibrail and sometimes by other means.
One of the companions said, “We were sitting somewhere. The Messenger of Allah's knees were leaning against my knees. That moment a revelation came. I thought my knees would be crushed.”
This was how it was describe when the Prophet received a revelation. If he received the revelation when he was riding on a camel, the camel would fall to the ground.
Revelations are such an interesting event... When he received a revelation, the Prophet would tell his scribes to write it down as he dictated the revelation. One of the revelation scribes was Imam Ali. Another was Abu Ayyub al-Ansar who is buried in Istanbul.
It was also a great honor for Imam Ali to be one of the revelation scribes.
Yet another honor. In that era, there were very few people who could read and write. It was very difficult to learn how to read in those lands. There was no school, no madrasa. There were very few literate people. Even the chief of the Thai tribe came to the Prophet Muhammad. The Prophet wrote something and gave it to him. He went outside. He was curious about what the Prophet wrote. He asked around in the streets of Medina, he searched for a man who could read the script but couldn’t find anyone. Literacy was difficult then, those who could read were very few. Imam Ali was a literate person. He could both read and write. He was the person who wrote the Hudaibiyah agreement.
In Hudaibiyah, the idolaters prevented the people from performing umrah. They held the Prophet's army in Hudaibiyah. Hudaibiyah is a district between Jeddah and Mecca. They held the army. Imam Ali was the one who wrote the agreement there. He knew how to read and write; this is also a great virtue.
Imam Ali was a Hafiz, a Hafiz al-Qurra. He memorized the whole Quran during the life of the Prophet. So all those who love Imam Ali should try to be like this. Imam Ali was a strong Hafiz. He used to recite the Quran very well, he had a beautiful voice. He was also a great scholar in Islamic law; he had great knowledge in fatwa topics, and he was also knowledgeable in the interpretation of the Qur’an.
He would say “Ask me any verse of Quran and I will tell you where it was revealed, whether it was revealed during the day or night, or while on an expedition. I will give you all the information about it.”
There are seven among the companions who were great judges, who issued fatwas. One of them was Imam Ali, one was the Prophet’s dear wife Aisha. Aisha also had a great deal of knowledge. One of the most important among them was Omar. Omar was very successful in issuing fatwas. However, Imam Ali's knowledge on fiqh was superior to Omar's knowledge. Omar used to consult Imam Ali on fiqh issues. Once Omar gave a decision on something. Then Imam Ali said;
“This is wrong oh Amir al-Mu’minin, it is actually this.” So Omer accepted this and changed his first judgement.
Imam Ali had a high level of knowledge on fiqh, he was a scholar. His literature was also good, he was a literateur, a ruler, a great soldier and a mujahideen.
The life of Imam Ali two separate episodes. The first is during our Prophet's life; the second episode is after this, after the death of the Prophet...
In the time of Uthman, discontent and disputes began among the Muslims. Imam Ali warned Uthman. That is wrong, this is a mistake. You are not completely employing the structure of the Sharia... Eventually, a large group from Egypt began to rule Medina. So Imam Ali protected Uthman. He placed Hassan and Hussein in front of Uthman’s door as guards to protect him from attacks. But a large crowd attacked Uthman together and martyred him while he was reading the Quran. His blood flowed on the Quran. That Quran is preserved in one of our museums.
I would like to inform you of something else. A Qur’an written by Imam Ali and which also bears his signature is preserved in the Topkapı Palace Museum today. Today some of the Alevis, — I also read their books, and began to study them- claim that “this Qur'an is not the original Qur'an.” This is incorrect. A copy of the Quran, bearing the signature of Imam Ali is kept in the Topkapı Palace Museum. Know this and tell them so they don't repeat this mistake, they should know this is wrong.
There was conflict in the time of Uthman. They killed the caliph and did not allow him to be buried for several days. They brutally killed him. He was martyred. The Prophet knew that Uthman was going to be a martyr. They martyred him, and later he was buried. They chose Imam Ali as caliph. This time some of them didn’t accept Ali’s caliphate. Disorder and struggle began in the political history of Islam. As caliph, Ali was traveling to a place near Basra to control the rebels, and 15 years after the Hijrah in 656 Aisha stood up against him. Talha and Zubair from among the Ashara Mubashara also came out in opposition. Inevitably there was a battle. The battle happened because they refused to obey Amir al-Mu’minin and opposed him. The opponents were defeated. Talha and Zubair were martyred. We call them martyrs because they are among the Ashara Mubashara. Because she was the wife of the Prophet, Aisha was sent to Medina al-Munawarah with 40 distinguished women. This was a shame. It was a shame that Aisha, Talha and Zubair who were promised paradise took sides against Imam Ali. This shows the position of politics. May politics never harm our Islamic brotherhood; may parties, traps, chaos be prevented from poisoning our Islamic brotherhood. Look, what a painful example. What else can we say about this? It’s a shame. We support Imam Ali, he was right. He was the Amir al-Mu’minin, the others should have obeyed him. The others didn't say anything to support Imam Ali, but they opposed him. Imam Ali was right. So naturally that battle was inevitable. This was called the “Battle of the Camel/Jamel.”
Moreover, Damascus refused to accept the caliphate of Imam Ali, and another battle also took place between them. In 657, the Damascus army and Imam Ali's army fought for 3 months in Siffin. Seventy-thousand Muslims died. Both sides were Muslim. One sided with Imam Ali, and the other with Muawiyah. Seventy-thousand people died, this is a great shame. After this incident, an even greater unrest emerged. Imam Ali was about to defeat them, then the Damascus army placed pages of Qur'an on the end of their spears and said "Let Qur'an to be the judge." Imam Ali said;
“They're being defeated, we will not fall for this trick, let’s defeat them so the political conflict will end.” They did not listen. This was referred to a judge. They said "Let the Quran be the judge." This was a huge mistake. Army members also refused to listen to Imam Ali. Eventually, some of them also said that appointing the Qur’an as a judge in this way was not acceptable. Imam Ali accepted. When it was accepted for this incident to be delegated to the judge, namely the Quran, another group also refused to obey him and left the army, this group later became Kharijis. They said;
“You will not apply to a judge or anything else.“ He said:
“Yes, I wouldn't have. I told you already, but the agreement emerged in such a way. That's what the majority wanted. What could I have done?”, but they did not listen. Although some saw reason with his advice, some didn’t. Imam Ali launched a war on them, because they persecuted people in the cities they captured. They killed some of those from among the holy companions. Imam Ali realized they were committing a crime, they were being unjust so he launched a battle against the Kharijis. Of course, this is a major scar in the history of Islam. This was the second scar. In 657, battles were held around Nahrawan. Then the two sides selected a judge. However, there was deceit in the judge’s decision. The judges expelled Imam Ali from the caliphate. Amr ibn al-As said;
"He is expelled, I am appointing Muawiyah to the Caliphate." And even though Abu Musa al-Ashari said;
“I object”, he did not listen. This event concerning the incident of the judges turned into a total mess. Then, in 659, this issue is emerged as topic of major conflict. Imam Ali prepared an army to control them, but the army proved to be disloyal to him. The Kufa people did not support Imam Ali. They said, "We don't want war." He was unable to follow this up and employ his caliphate on all the people. Many of you know that the people of Kufa called Imam Hussein, but they did not support him either. Eventually, when he fought against the Kharijis, who were enemies of Imam Ali, and he was martyred, they said;
“In order to eliminate this problem completely let’s kill Ali, Muawiyah and Amr bin al-As.” They chose three people as sacrifices. One went to Egypt to kill Amr b. al-As, however Amr ibn al-As had not gone to the mosque that day, so he was replaced by a deputy who was killed in his place. So Amr ibn al-As survived. Muawiyah survived with small wounds. But the Khariji called Abdurrahman ibn Muljam smeared poison on his sword and waited for Imam Ali in the Kufa Masjid. He plunged the sword in Imam Ali’s forehead, the sword penetrated until it reached Imam Ali’s brain. He survived there for two days. At that time, the place where this incident occurred was called Najaf, which is now known as Kufa. Imam Ali lived for two more days after the event and died in 661. According to reports he died on the 17th or 21st of Ramadan. He was a caliph for five years. This event ended in such a tragic way.
Upon Imam Ali receiving the wound that caused his death, Imam Hassan said:
“O Ali! Fear from Allah. You will die."
Imam Ali said;
“Not killed, I will be wounded here and I will become a martyr.“ Because the Prophet told him, "You will be a martyr." He knew where he was going to be wounded. He was bestowed with miracles... Allah told him what would happen.
He did not leave any inheritance apart from the 800 dirhams he saved to give to a poor person. He never benefitted from the state's property. He used his own personal wealth he had previously.
One day while eating in Kufa, they said to him;
“O Amir al-Mu’minin! Have something to eat, you haven’t taken anything.” He replied;
“I will not take anything from your treasury”, he always wore his old clothes.
I will read his legacy. His legacy is a legacy for all of us; it is a legacy of the Sunnis and Alevis.
“Do not hold any partners with Allah. Never stray from the Sunnah of Muhammad Mustafa; follow the path of the Sunnah. Never bring down these two pillars-if these two pillars did not exist this place would collapse Yesterday I was your friend, but today I am a lesson for you all– because he is wounded and will die-. Allah knows, but tomorrow I may not be with you. May Allah forgive me and you! Soon there will only be the body left of me that is calm after movement, and silent after talking. My lifeless body, my closed eyes, and my lifeless organs will be a lesson for you. I say goodbye to you as someone who goes to meet with his friends. (This is how the Companions and Successors were, they aspired death. Kitab al-Shifa mentioned a scholar, every night before he slept, he would say “O Allah, take my soul tonight so that I can be united with my beloved, you didn’t take my soul yesterday, nor the day before. At least take it tonight so I will meet my beloved ones, I will meet Muhammad Mustafa.” They aspired death. Imam Ali was saying “I say goodbye like a person who is going to be united with his friends.”) I advise you to fear Allah. Even if the world desires you, I advise you not to desire this world. (Zuhd. He says “Do not pursue what belongs to this world). Do not be sad when you cannot reach, or if you lose anything that belongs to the world, always speak the truth and work for the bounties of the Hereafter.”
Imam Ali is saying, “Work for the bounties of Hereafter; be the enemy of the oppressor and the helper of the oppressed. Making peace between two people is more important than all the voluntary prayers and voluntary fasts.” We are now trying to make peace between two groups.
“Care for the rights of orphans for the sake Allah. Comply with your neighbors' rights for the sake of Allah. Comply with the Qur’an for the sake Allah. No one else should be better than you in acting according to the Quran. Always be ahead of others in this aspect. Be the best in applying this into your life. Pay heed to the prayers for the sake of Allah. Because prayer is the pillar of our religion. Give your Lord’s house, the Kaaba its due rights. Go to perform the Hajj and Umrah. Never abandon jihad for the sake of Allah. Perform jihad with your property, your life, and your tongue on the path of Allah.”
Jihad means mutual combat. I may be a Muslim but we also have enemies. The enemy is trying to overthrow Islam, so I'm trying to maintain it. The enemy tries to kill Muslims, and I'm trying to protect them. In Chechnya, in Bosnia-Herzegovina I'm trying to protect them and the enemy are trying to kill. This is Jihad, to strive for Islam.
His legacy is longer, but this is sufficient for now.
May Allah keep us on the path of His beloved servants, the saints, the righteous. May Allah allow us to gain their intercessions. Imam Ali is the leader of sainthood, that is, the Shaman, Sultan of the army of sainthood. We also witness that; ”Ashadu Anna Aliyyen waliyyullah” Imam Ali is a saint of Allah. But it is wrong to call this out from the minaret. Because Allah has so many saints, if we were to count all their names the call to prayer would never end.
It is wrong to say this in a course of dispute. But we witness that Imam Ali is the Waliullah (saint of Allah), he was granted paradise, he is someone loved by Allah. And we are not saying this out of simple flattery, we say this as knowledge based on evidence. The mercy of Allah descends down to the place where the righteous and saints are remembered. I hope that Allah's mercy has descended here today. I hope mercy has filled your hearts. May Allah include us in His mercy. May we always be honored by His mercy. May He make us among those who follow the path He favors. Place us among those who understand their mistakes and repent.
I will tell you about another virtue of Imam Ali:
Imam Ali was scholar, and extremely knowledgeable... he once issued a decision on a matter. A man came to him and said;
“O Ali! You're wrong. This is not the case.” He explained the reasons. Imam Ali said;
"Yes, I was wrong and you're right, thank you." Accepting a mistake is a virtue. If there is anyone among us who misunderstood Imam Ali, who acts contrary to his way of life, or people who do not pray and drink alcohol; who do not follow the path of Ali after hearing all what I have said, then he should repent. Because the right path is the path of Imam Ali.
* Sufi and Historical characters,: Istanbul: Server Communication, 2015, 4. Printı, p. 15-45.
 5/Maidah, 17, 72.
 5/Maidah, 73.
 3/Âl-i Imran, 110.
 3/Âl-i İmrân, 104.
 6/An’âm, 103.
 49/Hujurât, 10.
 Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Musnad, IV, 263; Hâkim, III, 151.
 Bukhârî, “Masâjid”, 25; “Fazâil al-Sahâba”, 9; “İ’tisâm”, 40; “Adab”, 113.
 Regarding the names Asad and Haydar see. Hâkim, III, 116.
 61/Saff, 14.
 Hâkim, III, 116.
 İbni Kutaybah, Ta’wîl al-muhtalif al-Hadîth, p. 293; İbni Kayyim al-Jazwiyya, İ’lâmü’l-muwakkıîn, III, 234.
 Al-Insan 76:8-9: And they give food in spite of their love for it to the needy, the orphan , and the captive. (Saying) “We feed you only for the countenance of Allah. We wish not from you reward or gratitude.”
 Kurtubî, al-Jâmiu li ahkâm al-Qur’ân, XIX, 116 (interpretation of verses 8-9 of surah 76/İnsan); Suyûtî,ad-Durr al-mansûr, VIII, 371.
 Bukhârî, “Ta’bîr”, 13; Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Musnad, I, 237, hadith no: 2127.
 Abû Dawud, “Sunnah”, 9, hadith no: 4649; Tirmidhî, “Manaqib”, 26, hadith no: 3747-3748; Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Musnad, I, 188, hadith no: 1631.
 Mâlik, “Janâiz”, 30; Tabarânî, al-Mu’jam al-awsat, VI, 265-266-48, hadith no: 6373; a.mlf., al-Mu’jam al-Kabir, XXIII, 47-48, hadith no: 126-128; Hâkim, III, 62-63; IV, 437. For an analysis of the hadith see. Haysamî, Majma al-Zawaid, VII, 381-382; VIII, 617.
 Bukhârî, “Fazâil al-Sahaba”, 9; “Maghâzi”, 74; Muslim, “Fazâil al-Sahaba”, 30-32.
 At the battle of Badr, Imam Ali was 20 years old. See. İbni Asaqir, Târîh al-Dimashk, 42, 569. In the battle of Hunayn he personally killed 40 people. See. Qurtubî, al-Jâmi’, VIII, 89 (commentary of 9/Tawbah, verse 25).
 Buhari, “Jihad”, 141; “Fazâil al-Sahaba”, 9; “Maghazî”, 36; Muslim, “Fazâil al-Sahaba”, 35.
 Bukhari, “Jihâd”, 101, 141; “Fazâil al-Sahaba”, 9; “Maghazî”, 36; Muslim, “Fazail al-Sahaba”, 34.
 İbni Abi Shayba, VI, 375; Ahmadibn Hanbal, Musnad, I, 230, hadith no: 2040; Abu Ya’la, al-Musnad, IV, 266, hadith no: 2379.
 Bukhari, “Fazail al-Sahaba”, 12, 29; “İsti’zan”, 43; Muslim, “Fazail al-Sahaba”, 98-99; Tirmidhi, “Manaqib”, 31, hadith no: 3781.
 Bukhari, “Fazail al-Sahaba”, 9; Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Musnad, I, 174, 182, hadith no: 1505, 1583.
 Tabarani, al-Mu’jam al-Kabir, V, 108, hadith no: 4748. For an analysis on the hadith see. Haysami, Majma al-Zawaid, I, 382; VIII, 617.
 See. Bukhari, “Bad al-Wahy”, 1; “Bad al-Khalq”, 6; Muslim, “Fazail”, 86; Tirmidhi, “Manaqib”, 7, hadith no: 3634.
 This Sahabi is Zayd ibn Thabit. See. Bukhari, “Salat”, 11; “Cihâd”, 31; “Tafsir”, An- Nisa, 98; Abu Dawud, “Jihad”, 20, hadith no: 2507; Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Musnad, V, 190, hadith no: 21708; Ibn Kathir, Tafsir, I, 718 (tafsir of 4/An-Nisa, verses 95-96).
 Tabari, Jami al-Bayan, IV, 417 (tafsir of 5/Mâidah, verse 3); Suyuti, ad-Durr al-Ansur, III, 4. Regarding the Prophet on cold days when he received a revelation see. Mâlik, “Qur’âkn”, 7; Bukhari, “Bad al-Wahy”, 1; Tirmidhi, “Manaqib”, 7, hadith no: 3634. For the methods of receiving the revelations see. İbn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, Zad al-ma’ad, I, 70; Munawî, Faiz al-Qadîr, II, 450 (2273 number hadith glossary); Muhammad Gazali, Fiqh al-Sira, p. 90.
 It is known that the Prophet had a script written for prople named Habib ibn Amr, Jabir bin Dhalim al-Buhturi and his son Walid ibn Jabir from the Thai tribe. See. İbn Abdilbar,al-İstiab, I, 66, 491; İbn al-Asir, Üsd al-Ghaba, I, 491, trans. no: 644; V, 418, trans. no: 5471; İbn Hajar, al-İsaba, I, 433; II, 22; VI, 613.
 Muslim, “Jihad”, 91; Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Musnad, I, 86, hadith no: 656; IV, 291, hadith no: 18590.
 Abu Ya’la al-Kazwini, al-İrshad, I, 182.
 Muslim, “Fazail al-Sahaba”, 50; Tirmidhi, “Manaqib”, 19, hadith no: 3699; Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Musnad, I, 189, hadith no:1644.
 Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Musnad, I, 92, hadith no: 713; Hakim, III, 155; Bayhaqi, al-Sunan al-Kubra, VIII, 56, 183.
 İbn Hibban, XV, 34; Tabaranî, al-Mu’jam al-Kabir, I, 95, 105-106; Hakim, III, 122-123.
 There are a few reports regarding this issue. One of them is directly narrated by Imam Ali. See:. Abd ibn Humayd, Musnad, p.60, hadith no:92; Ibn al Asakir, Tarikh al-Dimask, 42, 543-544; Ibn al-Asir al-Jazari, Usd al-Ghaba, I, 109-110, translation number: 3789; Ali el-Muttaqî al-Hindî mentions this narration and says it is included in the “Afrad” of Darakutni. See: Kanz al-Ummal, hadith no: 32998. For the narration from Abdullah b. Salam: Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Sunnah, II, 560; Ibn Hibban, XV, 127, hadith no: 6733; Abu Ya’la, al-Musnad, I, 381, hadith no: 491; Hakim, III, 151. See for other narrations:. Ibn al-Asir al-Jazari, Usd al-Ghaba, I, 109-110, trans. no: 3789.
 Tabaranî, al-Mu’jam al Kabir, I, 96, hadith no: 167; III, 105, hadith no: 2809; Ibni Ashakir, Tarikh al-Dımask, 42, 562. Haysami, Majma al-Zawaid, IX, 191.
“Hz. Ali - 1”
Prof. Dr. M. Es’ad Coşan (Rh.a.)