Translations in other Languages
Shaykh Ahmad Yasawī is a person who achieved the service that our Prophet began in a manner witnessed by history, and in the most perfect way. He is a great person. In Asia, in Europe and in Anatolia... we owe him a great deal. His students brought Islam to Anatolia. Yunus Emre, the Hājī Baktāsh Walīs who taught us the discipline of tasawwuf were all devoted to him.
Prof. Dr. M. Es’ad Cosan
(May Allah have mercy on him)
We have gathered to commemorate our very illustrious, honorable, blessed and great elder. We are his descendants. If we study and investigate, we are his descendants on his path, and maybe also his children by linage.
It is our duty to commemorate the memory of a person who is extremely important not only for Turkey where we currently live, but also for the whole world; for all Turks, for all of Asia, the Balkans, Eurasia and India.
We have gathered in memory of a great person who has influenced our culture significantly and to who we are greatly indebted to.
Moreover, with his most prominent and leading qualities, this blessed person is a perfect (kāmil) spiritual guide and a person of perfection (mukammil); he is someone who attained perfection and has also trained many people of perfection; led them to attaining perfection.
He is an extremely important person in terms of the history of spreading Islam – spreading the divine light of Allah, all over the world both near and far beginning from Mecca Mukarrama to Madina Munawwara, the Arabian Peninsula. This is the case both in terms of quality and quantity.
He is also an extremely important person in terms of the history of tasawwuf; he is a person who we are closely connected to, and who we follow. As he is connected with Shaykh Yusuf Hamadānī through the Khwajagan, he is of the khulafa’(successors) of our spiritual chain (silsila). Some of the khulafa’ he trained personally went to study with our Shaykh Bahā’uddīn Naqshband. Some of them remained with him for months and some for years, receiving their training in tasawwuf directly from him. He is also our shaykh in this respect.
He is an extremely important person in terms of our military and social history. He trained spiritual heroes. He trained servicemen for the most historically important military operations of the world, he was a source that produced valuable personnel.
In terms of literary, he is one of the most important figures of Turkish Literature and Religious Turkish Literature.
He is an extremely important person who served Islam and influenced millions of people who lived in the regions where he lived.
Although all of these may appear to be worldly values and material dimensions, the dimensions we mentioned are particularly important in terms of him being a beloved servant of Allah, whose miraculous deeds (karāmāt) continued during his lifetime and after his death. Most important of all is to be a beloved servant of Allah. For everyone, this is earning the highest level, earning the status and attribute of being the beloved servant of Allah.
Mehmed Tahir Effendi of Bursa quotes four verses at the beginning of his book Osmanlı Müellifleri. This reflects his own belief, this reflects a reality: Shaykh Ahmad Yasawī is not only recorded in history; he continues to benefit and influence us today. I considered it appropriate to relate this. The poet says:1
The soul of the walī is of the ahl at-tasarruf in both worlds
Don’t question ‘Who’s this dead person? What remedy does he provide?’...
The body is buried beneath the earth, but the soul remains. The soul of a walī has spiritual disposition(tasarruf) in both worlds. He is a person of disposition both in life and after death.
Do not say “He’s a dead person, he’s deceased; what remedy can he provide?” Do not carry such an attitude of denial, an attitude of disbelief and materialism! Do not think like that!...
Rûh şemşîr-i Hüdâ’dır ten gılâf olmuş ona Daha âlâ kâr eder bir tığ kim uryân ola!..
“The soul is a sharp sword of Allah, skin is like its sheath. When the soul enters into the skin, it is as if the sword is sheathed...” A sword works better when it is unsheathed. When sheathed it does not cut, but it cuts once unsheathed. This is because of the presence of the blight of fame in its present life. It goes against humility. Our elders do not disclose their states of perfection (kamālāt) and supernatural wonders (karāmāt). They confess their weakness, insignificance and sins. They see their minor shortcomings as major; they consider their major charities as nonexistent. They are clothed with humility. Hence nobody understands. He says, “I, the weak/sinful/erring...” or “A disobedient guilty slave of Allah who is immersed in a sea of sin...” He sees himself as such – however he is actually a beloved servant of Allah.
As the trial ends after death, the spiritual dispositions (tasarrufāt) then begin. The miracles (karāmāh) of the friends of Allah (awliyā’) then become apparent. If you visit his grave it is apparent, or when they appear in your dream it is apparent.
I want to narrate an example from the present as this is indirectly related to this topic, yet it explains the issue excellently:
One of our author brothers wanted to write a book on the lives of the awliyā’ who lived in Turkey after the Republican period. He made a list of well-known knowledgeable and honorable scholars. He also allocated a few pages to explain the life of our Sheikh Mehmed Zahid Effendi.
When one of our sergeant brothers heard of his good idea, he said to him:
“If you intend to fulfill this task, then I will be your typist; you dictate and I will write it down. I will help you during my annual leave.”
The first man replied, “Very well...”
The brother who said he would help was a sergeant in a battalion that had nuclear missiles. When it was time for him to use his annual leave, his commander cancelled all leaves because a problem they were unable to solve occurred in the shooting mechanism of the missiles. They called on experts, asked Americans... they could not figure out what the problem was. The commander of the unit was short-tempered, angry and concerned because they were not able to solve the problem... so he cancelled all leaves. There was an emergency: the missile will not work – if they needed to launch the missile, they would not be able to because the mechanism was defective...
Around that time, the sergeant had a dream. In his dream, a white bearded saintly man with red cheeks and a radiant face said:
“Son! The problem in the mechanism of your missiles is in this part in this section of the mechanism...”
So, the next day he went to his commander and asked:
“Sir! Will you allow me to use my leave if I solve the problem of the missiles?”
His commander responds: “Solve the problem and I’ll double your leave!”
So he went and opened the part he saw in his dream, easily finds the problem and solves it.
This is an important point. Later, when he went to our author brother, he saw a picture of our sheikh Mehmed Zahid Kotku and realized that this was the man he saw in his. He did not know of him before.2
This is an example of the connection awliyā’ullah, the beloved servants of Allah have with the living...
Dreams may be interpreted in various ways; it can be said that “events and feelings that have been suppressed in the subconscious of the human psyche are reflected to one’s conscious during sleep due to repose felt while dreaming.” Fine... but however much this is reflected, this could not disclose the defect with the missiles! He showed him the specific place in the missile where there was a defect. He said “ It’s here!” and the problem was solved. From this we understand that there is a connection between the realm of the souls and the realm in which we live. The souls of Allah’s beloved servants can have contact with people here. We call this “tasarrufāt,” meaning managing, , performing, carrying out certain duties.
Indeed, this is how it is. If a person really is a beloved servant of Allah, then he will possess the gift of divine favors(karāmāt)experience extraordinary events during his life; hundreds and thousands of these manifest without circumstance or effort and continue after his death.
Shaykh Ahmad Yasawī’s mausoleum is the most beautiful, the most magnificent, the most extraordinary work of art in the world. Those embroideries, that portal, the grandness of the door, the interior arrangement...3
The mausoleum was commissioned by Timur;Timur’s mausoleum named Gûr-i Mir in Samarqand is also magnificent. It is unclear from photos – you realize the splendor and beauty of its art when you enter the mausoleum itself. If you want to see a work of art at Samarqand, then you must visit Timur’s mausoleum!
Timur appointed one of the most famous architects of that period to construct Ahmad Yasawī’s mausoleum in the town of Yasi. It is a magnificent monument.
Timur saw Ahmad Yasawī in his dream; he gave him the glad tidings of a victory. As a sign of his gratitude, Timur visited his grave and ordered architects, saying:
“Build a mausoleum for this great person!”
As he previously had a spiritual connection with him, Timur commissioned the construction of a mausoleum for him.
Timur was a person of belief, love; he was dedicated to tasawwuf, he was a devoted person...
We can see that Ahmad Yasawī is a beloved servant of Allah with his miracles (karāmāt) from both his narratives and his works, with his miracles (karāmāt) in both the past and the present. After all, this is the highest rank.
They named him “Pīr of Turkistan,” “Hadhrat of Turkistan.” It is true; no title would suffice to describe his greatness. Even if we were to bring the seven stars to his grave, we still would not consider ourselves to have accomplished anything. He is “qutb al-aqtāb(pillar of pillars);” he taught walīs, students and khalifas. He is “leader of the sheiks,” “sultān of the awliyās’,” “burhān al-atqiyā’(symbol of piety).” He is an exemplary person of distinction among the people of taqwa (piety). He is a person who practiced what he taught. He is a person of hāl (spiritual state) not simply of qāl (words).
He is the beloved of Allah; he is of the descendants of our Prophet Muhammad (‘alayhissalam). Of course, this is nūrun ‘alā nūr (light upon light),4 honor of all honors.
He was the means of guidance for hundreds of thousands and taught thousands of spiritual guides (murshids). He fervently tried to attract people to Islam; he made great efforts and taught others in this cause including dervishes, caliphs and shaykhs. He gave guidance. He would go and confront the source of danger. He confronted danger. He made a great effort to find solutions that would completely eliminate danger.
We owe him much gratitude. We could never express the gratitude he deserves, no matter how much we try.
All of us are preoccupied in life; we are all making an effort. Quite naturally, there is an intention behind our efforts in life. Allah judges actions according to intentions.5 Everyone pursues certain duties with a specific intention. The most important aspect of life is to find and become familiar with the Creator of life, the Owner of the universe, Allah Most High, He Who sends us sustenance and with Whose blessings we live, and show servitude to Him in the way He demands. This is the essence of the matter. Our duty is not to become doctors, engineers, politician, tradesman, or merchants – our duty is to be a servant of Allah. This is what Allah demands from us.
وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الجِنَ وَالإنْسَ إلَّا لِيَعْبُدُونِ
Wa mā khalaqtul jinna wal insa illā li ya‘budūn.6
And I did not create the jinn and mankind except to worship Me.
I do not want from them any provision, nor do I want them to feed Me.
لِيَبْلُوَكُمْ أيُّكُمْ أحْسَنُ عَمَلا
Li yabluwakum ayyukum ahsanu ‘amalā.7
A test of “which of you is best in conduct?” is occurring around us. This is the reality of life.
Allah Almighty does not accept all deeds, even if they are good.
Edison discovered electricity, so and so built a bridge, so and so carried out such and such research...
إِنَّ الله لَا يَغْفِرُ أنْ يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَلِكَ لِمَنْ يَشَاءُ
Innallāha lā yaghfiru an yushraka bihī wa yaghfiru mā dūna thālika liman yashā.8
Allah may forgive other shortcomings but He will never forgive shirk (associating others with Him). And He never forgives the kāfir...
Kāfir, munkir means the atheist.
Atheist means one who is not a theist, one who does not even recognize Allah. He will be among the asfali sāfilīn (the lowest of the low)... yet the one who, although he is familiar with Allah, fails to know Him correctly; Allah does not forgive, and will never forgive the mushrik who associates partners to Allah.
A human must be familiar with the truth of Allah. Even if he lives in the valleys of the Amazon or in a village where no civilization has reached, he must know Allah correctly; this is his duty.
The most important duty of prophets was to explain this reality to people.
In one hadith it is recorded that our Prophet Muhammad said:
أفْضَلُ مَا قُلْتُ أَنَا وَالنَبِيُّونَ مِنْ قَبْلِي لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَهُ وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ
Afdhalu mā qultu wannabiyyūna min qablī lā ilāha illallahu wahdahū lā sharīka lahū.
“The best of what has been said by me and the prophets before me is ‘there is no god except for Allah, He is One, He has no partner.”9 This is the most important statement. He is One; He has no partner, associate and no one is like Him nor similar to Him.
Again, our Prophet Muhammad is recorded to have said:
أمِرْتُ أَنْ أُقَاتِلَ النَاسَ حتَّى يَشْهَدُوا أنْ لَا إِلَهَ إلَّا الله
Umirtu an uqātilannāsa hattā yashhadū an lā ilāha illallah.
“I have been commanded to fight people until they testify that there is no god except for Allah.”10 “This is my duty as a prophet... I will lead people to the religion of truth, I will strive to erase false beliefs from the minds of people – I will eradicate shirk!”
Our Prophet went to Ta’if in order to carry out this task. Those in Ta’if did not understand, they threw rocks at him, wounded him and made him bleed. When those from the Arabian Peninsula came to various fairs, he would inform them of Islam and the commands of Allah. He began with his relatives and his tribe, then he went to those tribes and people -group by group- who came from neighboring areas, meeting them with the question: “Who are you? Where did you come from?!” and then informing them about Islam. As a result of one such meeting, he taught those coming from Medina to Aqaba about Islam. He convinced them of Islam, and thus the history of Islam began to develop through another channel.
When he went to Medina, he went to the leader of the hypocrites and the synagogue of the Jews. By holding discussions and conversing with priests from Najran, he tried to invite them to Islam. More than seventy people came from Najran with their idols and crosses.
He went to the synagogue of the Jews, conveying Islam by saying:
“O Jews! I am the prophet whom Moses informed the coming of in the Torah!”
Some such as Abdullah ibn Salām (ra) accepted, while others rejected. Some priests who came accepted, while others remained Christians, saying:
“Let us pay taxes to you but keep our religion! Don’t miss out on the money the Byzantines send to the church of Yemen.”
Our Prophet conveyed Islam wherever he went. He tried to teach every community about Islam.
He sent diplomatic delegations and wrote letters to neighboring states. These were published as al-Wathāiq as-Siyāsiyya (Diplomatic Documents).11
These were sent to the Byzantine emperor Hercules, the Sassanian emperor, the Egyptian emperor al-Muqawqis, the ruler of Bahrain, Assyrians, Ethiopia, etc.
Today, Assyrians have a church in the southeast of Anatolia. I know of a saying of one of their priests; in their church they have a letter sent by our Prophet to their forefathers, to their church. He also sent a letter there saying: “Come to Islam!” and they have preserved that letter. An Assyrian church in the southeast of Anatolia is preserving the letter of our Prophet.
These reveal the main goal of the Messenger of Allah. These reveal what Allah wants from His servants and what their principle duty is. The noble Sahaba perceived this wisdom. Most of them passed away distant from their own countries. The graves of more than twenty Sahaba in Istanbul, including that of our source of pride, Khālid ibn Zayd Abū Ayyūb al-Ansārī are witnesses to this.
Kusam ibn Abbas, who is said to have been buried in Samarqand, is the son of our Prophet’s uncle, Abbas (ra). He was martyred in Samarqand.12 His tomb is so magnificent... there are actually many tombs there, a group of tombs... Kusam (ra)’s tomb is decorated with ceramic tiles... Allah ordained for us and we made this visit.
Islam recognized no boundaries or obstacles, and surpassed borders where it met Iran; and Iran became Muslim. It exceeded Iran and came to Khorasan. From Khorasan it reached Mā warāʼ an-Nahr (Transoxiana)to the other side of the Oxus (Jayhan) river. The Oxus and Jaxartes rivers flow from the southeast towards the northwest and meet the Aral Sea. The area between the two is a very important center for us. Beyond the Jaxartes river towards the Baikal Lake, there are vast terrains stretching to East Turkestan. Muslims reached these regions.
Muslim armies set up military camps there. For example, Nishapur was one of the important camps established by the Arabs. Many Arab scholars settled there. Some of their grandchildren married the natives there, while some married within their own race. Great scholars were raised there. There are many people of Arab origin, whose genealogy was established, in Khorasan, Transoxiana, present-day Afghanistan and Khwarazm.
One of our devout Muslim sisters, a nurse in a hospital, brought me a genealogy, asking: “What is written here?” I read it... she was from the linage of our Prophet. She came from Turkestan. She is not pale in complexion, but slightly dark-skinned...
I told her, “You are from the linage of our Prophet! Your forefathers were great scholars... see it’s written here.” There are many such people...
Alhamdulillah, in our family our grandmother is the same. We came to this country from Bukhara. In our group, there were Arab female servants.
So why am I telling you this?
Muslims spread out to these regions; on the one hand they advanced to North Africa, while on the other advance towards the Caucasus. They were also urging into Anatolia. It was very difficult to convert Anatolia to Islam; Anatolia resisted heavily against Islam. The Qara Khitai were putting on the pressure on one side, while on the other side Allah was procuring the conquest of Anatolia conquered. Nomads passing by also came to Anatolia. The Seljuk state, then afterwards the conquering of Istanbul and the Balkans; they made Islam advance even further. Later, they also became Muslims.
Our Prophet Muhammad strived to spread Islam. The Sahaba also strived to spread Islam. They left behind their homes, children, countries and comfortable lives for the sake of spreading Islam. Also their children, with their knowledge these scholars continued the same duty.
According to a narration by Ali (ra), our Prophet Muhammad said:
العُلَمَاءُ مَصَابِيحُ الأَرْضِ وَخُلَفَاءُ الأَنْبِياءِ وَ وَرَثَتِى وَوَرَثَةُ الأَنْبِيَاءِ
al-‘Ulamā’u masābīhul ardhi wa khulafā’ul anbiyā’i wa warathatī wa warathatul anbiyā’i.
“Scholars are the light. lamps, projectors of the earth. They are the caliphs of the Prophets (they are the actual caliphs). They are my heirs. They are also the heirs of the Prophets of the past.”13
العُلَمَاءُ أُمَنَاءُ الرُّسُلِ عَلَى عِبَادِ اللهِ
al-‘Ulamā’u umanā’urrusuli ‘alā ‘ibādillah.
“Scholars are the ones whom Prophets trust regarding the servants of Allah (and whom they entrust the ummah).”14
العُلَمَاءُ أُمَنَاءُ اللهِ عَلَى خَلْقِهِ
al-‘Ulamā’u umanā’ullahi ‘alā khalqihī.
“Scholars are the guarantors of Allah (His trustee servants) regarding His creation.”15
In another hadith, scholars are yet again praised:
العُلَمَاءُ قَادَةٌ وَالمُتَّقوُنَ سَادَةٌ وَمُجَالَسَتُهُمْ زِيَادَةٌ
al-‘Ulamā’u qādatun wal muttaqūna sādatun wa mujālasatuhum ziyādatun.
“Scholars are commanders (leaders, pioneers). Those who have taqwa are sayyids (masters, exalted individuals). Being among them, attending their gatherings is a means of increasing in knowledge, wisdom, spiritual blessings and reward).”16
This is why their attributes are Sultan, Padishah, Pasha... for example, they say “Muslih Pasha,” “Āshiq Pasha,” “Hudāwandiqār,” “Sultānul Awliyā.” This is why.
Naturally, as scholars are their heirs, they understood the duties of the prophets and continued on the same path.
Because there are hadith of our Prophet Muhammad:
لَأَنْ يَهْدِيَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ عَلَى يَدَيْكَ رَجُلاً خَيْرٌ لَكَ مِمَّا طَلَعَتْ عَلَيْهِ الشَّمْسُ وَغَرَبَتْ
La’an yahdiyallahu ‘azza wa jalla ‘ala yadayka rajulan khayrun laka mimmā tala‘at ‘alayhish shamsu wa gharabat.
“Were Allah to guide a single person through you (you strived, advised, warned; and he became a Muslim, was guided to the right path) this would be better for you than all of the earthly creations upon which the sun rises and sets.”17 This is because the rewards earned by the person you guided are also written for you without any decrease.
Scholars realized this. This is why the rewards and status’ of these great individuals are unreachable. They guided millions of people, they were the means of them accepting faith, becoming Muslim. All of their deeds and rewards are also recorded in the books of their guides.
Who could compete with scholars such as Ahmad Yasawī, Imam Ghazālī? These great individuals are splendid, important, magnificent people...
Sheikh Ali Yakup (rahmatullahi ‘alayh, may Allah fill his grave with light and place him in paradise) was Albanian. He was an outspoken person and would always give credit wherever due.
He used to say, “May Allah be pleased with these Ottomans... if they had not come to the Balkans and conveyed the message of Islam, maybe us Albanians would be living as Christians today.” This was how he expressed his gratitude to the Ottomans.
There are two kinds of scholars:
1. By name and title...
2. His disposition reflects the qualities Allah loves
The second is the most important. And they are the murshids, the leaders of tasawwuf, the men of tasawwufand saints.
Some of them fought, some of them worshipped and some taught knowledge in madrasas... but they all strived for Islam.
Dist. Prof. Ömer Lütfi Barkan wrote a famous article titled “Kolonizatör Türk Dervişleri” (Colonizer Turkish Dervishes) ...they would travel alone and build a lodge somewhere on the route where people were in need of help and rest. They would plant trees, bring water, build places; they established dervish lodges and welcome guests. That place would develop and eventually become a major city. Dist. Prof. Ömer Lütfi Barkan explains how Islam developed and spread in the Balkans with the activities of these dervishes.
Even today, the spread of Islam to America, Europe and other places that are not Muslim countries, is again through these sincere, devout dervishes.
I am explaining this in these regards: Shaykh Ahmad Yasawī was a person who understood this meaning; he dedicated his life to this meaning. That is why I made this introduction; so that the status of Shaykh Ahmad Yasawī would be fully understood.
Shaykh Ahmad Yasawī is a person who achieved the service that our Prophet began in a manner witnessed by history, and in the most perfect way. He is a great person. In Asia, in Europe and in Anatolia... we owe him a great deal. His students brought Islam to Anatolia. Yunus Emre, the Hājī Baktāsh Walīs who taught us the discipline of tasawwuf were all devoted to him.
Our nation should be familiar with Shaykh Ahmad Yasawī ... because we owe him gratitude; because he is our elder, maybe even our ancestor... because he is one of the most important names of our culture... naturally, there is a gradual understanding of one’s origin, a reverting back to one’s essence...
After understanding every aspect of the Westernization process and recognizing these Westerners well, there has been a greater revival. The disintegration of the Soviet Union allowed us to go there.
The day we went to Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan declared its independence. The day we went to Tashkent, Uzbekistan declared its independence. Even if this is just superficial, it is a beginning...
Freedom came to those lands. The iron curtain was destroyed, an opportunity to visit arose, we began to see those places. We witnessed persecution; we witnessed our brothers who were persecuted. We hugged each other, we wept; we shed tears... we soaked our beards with tears... It was a major breakthrough.
On the of UNESCO, due to reverting back our roots, in recent years we declared one year the “Year of Yunus Emre.”. That was pleasant...
In Turkey, we dedicated 1993 to the memory of Shaykh Ahmad Yasawī. That was also pleasant...
But this is not sufficient...
Words do not suffice to describe him: We must visit Sheikh Ahmad Yasawī’s mausoleum, the places where he was born and lived. We must understand his character and life. Inshallah these services will be provided... One year is not enough, maybe we should allocate tens of years in his memory!
Sources say “We, Sheikh Ahmad Yasawī’s Turks, Muslims and even Kurds in Anatolia…” I read in books that people who are known to be of Kurdish origin around Tunceli classify themselves as the sons of Shaykh Ahmad Yasawī. This is also an important point. We knew previously, the biography of Ahmad Yasawī is recorded in the Velâyetnâme and Menâkıbnâme of Hājī Baktāsh Walī... it is also included in the Seyahatnâme (Book of Travels) of the famous Awliyā Chalabī. The spiritual saints of Khorasan are indisputable. We know this from Āshiq Pasha. We know who sent the hero saints, the veterans of Anatolia. We have knowledge of Ahmad Yasawī...
Naturally, when we want to satisfy our curiosity regarding the reliability of this information and ask “Where can I find this information?” – then, like all our old historical information, we come upon certain shortcomings. There are a number of sources, but they are not able to convey sufficient, necessary information.
The main information about Ahmad Yasawī is the wisdom that he himself has described and wrote... he calls his own poems “hikma” (divine wisdom). In folk literature, we call religious poems “ilâhi.” Poems related to the Baktashi tariqa are called “nafas.” For example, verses bearing deep, philosophical meanings are called “mânî,” meaning “words that bear meaning.” Qādhi Burhanuddin called a verse that expresses emotion as “tuyuğ.” As for the word “hikma,” it means “a saying that is consistent with logic, intellect, religion, knowledge and wisdom.”
Our Shaykh Ahmad Yasawī was not a poet. The title “poet” can abase some people. This is also mentioned regarding our Prophet Muhammad in Surah Yasin:
وَمَا عَلَّمْنَاهُ الشِّعْرَ وَمَا يَنْبَغِي لَهُ
Wa mā ‘allamnāhush shi‘ra wa mā yanbaghī lah.
“We did not teach him poetry, and it is not befitting for him.”18
Our Prophet Muhammad was given the ability to impart the noble hadith which are a source of wisdom, and complement the Quran.
أُوتِيْتُ جَوَامِعَ الكَلِمِ (أُعْطِيْتُ جَوَامِعَ الكَلِمْ)
U‘tiytu jawāmi‘al kalim.19 Orderly, concise hadith, his Sunnah... this was another wisdom given to our Prophet in addition to the Quran. Hence the word “hikma” is found in our religious literature and is also mentioned in the Quran.
وَمَنْ يُؤتَ الحِكْمَةَ فَقَدْ اوُتِيَ خيرَاً كَثِيراً
Wa man yu’tal hikmata faqad ūtiya khayran kathīrā.
“If someone is given wisdom (hikma), then he has been given great good.”20 Wisdom is a great gift, a great honor and favor from Allah...
This is why Shaykh Ahmad Yasawī spoke wisdom; he conveyed words of deep meaning; words that express the truths consistent with our logic, intellect, knowledge and wisdom. Hence they are called “hikma”...
These wisdoms were compiled into a book titled Divân-ı Hikmet, these were formed into manuscripts and published several times. If we examine these published and manuscript forms of the Divân-ı Hikmet we will see that they are very different from one another. This is because Shaykh Ahmad Yasawī conveyed, expressed and recorded words of wisdom when the occasion arose. These were later compiled, there are various collections... some were passed down, and even memorized. The murids read them in their gatherings... they were conveyed through oral transmission, by saying “Our Shaykh said this, he related such and such hikma.” However, as they were continuously transmitted in the dervish lodges, relevant poems belonging to others were also added.
This occurs often in our Turkish Literature. For example, we very much love the illustrious Süleyman Çelebi’s Mevlid, however while reading it, the reciter descends from the pulpit and then the hafiz recites a different nasheed in between. Due to such nasheeds, when we examine the page of Mevlid we sometimes see other poems apart from Süleyman Çelebi’s Vesîletü’n-necât. This, becomes a collection, a compilation, an anthology. For example, it was confirmed that the section “Merhabâ” was written by another poet.
This is also the case in Yunus Emre’s Divân... When you examine its various manuscripts, one contains 135 poems while the other has 240, and another has such and such... they differ from one another. Of course, as the person who recorded these poems added these as the poems of a certain sacred individual, the poems of others were also included.
This is the case with the Divân-ı Hikmet collection.
The Divân-ı Hikmet directly contains information about Shaykh Ahmad Yasawī’s life, ideas concerning tasawwuf, and some of the important events in his own life. This is why the Divân-ı Hikmet is one of the most important sources regarding his life.
Then there are certain sources used by experts that we are not that familiar with...
There is Ali Shīr Nawā’ī’s book titled Nasāyim al-Mahabba min Samāyim al-Futuwwa. This book was published by Prof. Kemal Eraslan (1979). It contains information about the Yasawīs... this book is the translation of Mulla Jāmī’s book titled Nafāhat al-Uns, however Ali Shīr Nawā’ī personally added Ahmad Yasawī .
There is some information in Ali al-Harawī’s Rashāhatu ‘Ayn al-Hayāt. This book was translated into Turkish (Ottoman).
There is little information in books examined by experts such as Mihmannāma Bukhārā, Risāla Tawārīkh Bulgāriyya, the Bakırgan21 by Süleyman Hakim Ata...
There is certain information in Harîrîzâde Kemâleddin Effendi’s famous book titled Tibyânü Vesâili’l-hakâyık.22
There is information about the Yasawī dervishes in Awliyā Chalabī’s Seyahatnâme. He himself says, “I am one of the grandchildren of Ahmad Yasawī!” Sheikh Hājī Baktāsh Walī’s Menâkıbnâme is old, it is from the fifteenth century. It contains information about Ahmad Yasawī that is not reliable... in fact it also states that Shaykh Ahmad Yasawī also authored a menâkıbnâme.
There is information in the Kunhu al-Akhbār by the historian Âlî...
One of the most important works on Yasawīyya comprising of information on Shaykh Yasawī, his murids and followers is a manuscript titled Cevâhirü’l-ebrâr min emvâci’l-bihâr. This work is located in the Turkish manuscripts section of the Istanbul University Library, number 3893; this is a single copy and has 327 pages. 120 pages are in Persian. This is a great work written by a Yasawī dervish and contains important information about the Yasawī tariqa. It would have been good if it was printed in 1993 on the occasion of the “Year of Yasawī.” InshaAllah it will be published soon.23
These are historical sources. Today, the most important work regarding Ahmad Yasawī that we can benefit from and which can be considered a monograph is Dist. Prof. Fuad Köprülü’s book he wrote at a young age, titled Türk Edebiyatı’nda İlk Mutasavvıflar. It was first printed in 1919 using the Ottoman Turkish script. Publishing such a work under the conditions of that period proves that Köprülü was a genius. It is a very good and extensive work. The first part of the book is about Ahmad Yasawī, while the second part is about Yunus Emre. The book is rich in its sources... it is difficult to decide whether to read through its footnotes or the main text?! He gathered whatever he found with ambition, love, enthusiasm, and the energy of his youth.
We visited him at his home. He was a very small built man, but Allah gave him such talent. I myself am a small person, yet I was looking down on him. It is an extremely tremendous work. The sources and information it contains quoted in the İslâm Ansiklopedisi. It is the source of most of the encyclopedia materials such as the Evliyâlar Ansiklopedisi, Türk Dili ve Edebiyatı Ansiklopedisi, Diyanet İslâm Ansiklopedisi, etc. Later, this was requoted in the works of people who wrote about Ahmad Yasawī. The article on Ahmad Yasawī in the İslâm Ansiklopedisi was written by Fuad Köprülü.
For the most part, his ideas are accurate. Of course, there are some points that are mistaken, but it still maintains its reputation as a very important work. It was printed several times, including the first that was in Ottoman Turkish. While translating from this script to the modern Turkish script, the translators’ errors or lack of knowledge was a problem. The older print is more valuable in terms of it having no textual errors.
Another work related to this topic that I can recommend to have in your library is the Ahmed-i Yesevî’nin Divân-ı Hikmeti publication by Dr. Hayati Birce. This is the Diyanet Foundation’s publication. The beauty of it is that on one side, the hikmas are recorded in their original Central Asian Turkish text, and immediately beside this they are written in the Turkish we understand. It is possible to compare. In this respect, it is a good book that is worth being promoted as an important edition.
Prof. Dr. Kemal Eraslan carried out research on Ahmad Yasawī. One of his books was published by the Ministry of Culture, under the name Divân-ı Hikmet’ten Seçmeler. As a linguist, he is an expert in this field and his readings are more to the point. He is more familiar with the words. He has included notes, etc.; it is more valuable.
As the İlim Kültür ve Sanat Foundation, we were the first to hold a symposium in 1993. Some of the speeches at that symposium were published in the “Ahmed-i Yesevî ve Orta Asya’da Tasavvuf” issue of our İlim ve Sanat journal.24 We addressed this topic before official sources.
Prof. Dr. Cemal Anadol wrote a book titled Anadolu’yu Aydınlatan Güneş Pîr-i Türkistân Hoca Ahmed-i Yesevî ve Yesevîlik. It is like a compilation of quotations from various sources. It contains no analysis and criticism. In that regard it is simple.
The birthplace of Shaykh Ahmad Yasawī is located in the south of present-day Kazakhstan, outside Uzbekistan. It is a place called “Sayram” which is classified as part of East Turkestan and is seven kilometers from the city of Shymkent. “Sayram” is a Turkish word; they refer to a decrease in water, it becoming shallow, as “saylamlaşmak.” In Persian this is “isficâb” or “ispicâb.” Zeki Velidi Togan says that “Isfic means white.” Actually, white in Persian is “sefîd” or “isfid” but it ending with “c” means it is a certain dialect. Isficâb means “white water, clean water” and is also known by this name.
Although his date of birth is uncertain, the period is more or less certain. Information given in these sources regarding his birth date is based on estimations; interpreting and evaluating the available information. And when they do not evaluate certain information, then this can be inaccurate... The Divân-ı Hikmet contains some information…This must be evaluated!
In terms of information available in encyclopedias, we learn from the Divân-ı Hikmet that he became a follower of Shaykh Yusuf Hamadānī at the age of 27. In his own poems, he wrote what he did each year, and explains that he became a follower of Shaykh Yusuf Hamadānī. Shaykh Yusuf Hamadānī was a great person, who was instructed by Shaykh Abu Ali Fāramādī and followed the Hanafī madhhab. He is a very important personality.
Yusuf Hamadānī came from the city of Hamadan. He spent his life occupied with jurisprudence, knowledge, reading the Quran... he never wasted a moment of his time. While going from one place to another, even if it which was a distance of seven hundred feet he would recite Sūra Baqarah on the way. He was a tall, blonde man with a pock marked face who recited the Quran even while walking on the street; he was very diligent and strived so that people accepted Islam... He followed the Hanafī madhhab... it is reported that he travelled to Baghdad and studied the Hanafī madhhab under Abū Ishāq. He had knowledge of hadith... He was a devout follower of the Sunnah. In Iran, he would visit homes of fire-worshipper and invite them to Islam. He was very generous, he was known for his generosity.
At some point, Yusuf Hamadānī went to Bukhara and remained there for a while to provide services. Then, he went to Herat, he remained there for a while. Later he was asked to return to Bukhara. He passed away close to Merv on the return journey to Bukhara from Herat. According to one report, it is said that “they moved his tomb to Merv.”
Ahmad Yasawī becoming the student of Yusuf Hamadānī is very significant. When he was young, he travelled to the city of Yasi and received guidance from the murshid named Aslan Babs. Yasi is a city approximately 157 km from Sayram. He was born in Sayram and was initially taught by his father Shaykh Ibrahim. It is important that his father was both a Shaykh and a descendant of our Prophet Muhammad. His linage is provided in sources.
Shaykh Ahmad Yasawī not only followed the path of our Prophet Muhammad in terms of his actions he also followed the path of our Prophet with his behavior and manners to maintain the duty of the Prophet and mission he commanded; he was also a descendant of our Prophet. In fact, the books on the lives of some of his later descendants reveal their ancestry by providing their lineage. He was instructed by Yusuf Hamadānī and later ascended to become one of his khalifas. Yusuf Hamadānī was a great person... he taught many khalifas. As the third of his successors, historical sources prove that Shaykh Ahmad Yasawī was a shaykh of the Khwajaganiyya order, and the tariqa chain between ‘Abdulkhāliq Gujduwānī to Bahā’uddīn Naqshband.
At this point, I would like to explain the word “Khwaja.” Khwaja does not mean “hoca” (teacher) in the way we understand it; it does not simply carry the meaning of “a university hoca” or “the hoca of a mosque.” Firstly, it is written as “khwaja” with the letter “waw” but this is not pronounced. This indicates a specific pronunciation of the letter “kha.” Khwaja is a name given to noble people and especially to the descendants of our Prophet Muhammad. It can be given to viziers and great individuals, but cannot be given to ordinary people. In the same way that that the words “hüdâvendigâr” and “hünkâr” are used in Anatolia. For example, Mawlana Rumi is called “Molla Hüdâvendigâr” and “Molla Hünkâr” while Hājī Baktāsh Walī is called “Hünkâr.” Khwaja is a title similar to this.
His name is Ahmad. Yasawī is a word of attribution (nisba). It is a word that shows where one is from and brought up. It is an adjective indicating a person’s place of origin It is added to the name in the form of an adjective. It is a Persian adjectival phrase. In view of this, the proper pronunciation is “Ahmad-i Yasawī.” This is how it is pronounced in Persian. If we were to say this in Turkish we would have to say “Yesili Ahmed” or “Yesi şehrinden Ahmed” (Ahmad from Yasi or the city of Yasi). Yasawī means from the city of Yasi.
Bukhara is towards the South; it is a safer, larger cultural center, however his return from Bukhara to the northeast bore great importance. This was a move in that direction in order to confront the source of disbelief, to prevent disbelief and to invite the non-Muslims to Islam... he served and fulfilled his duties in Yasi.
He divided his time into three:
1. He was occupied with his students and taught them Islamic sciences.
2. He was occupied in worship.
3. He worked in order to earn a living. This is very important both in the Naqshi order, and in all the branches of tasawwuf as the main principle is that one spends money that he has earned honestly and legitimately, it is essential that one sustains himself through his own laboring and is not a burden on anyone, on the contrary he should feed others from his own earnings.
Yunus Emre describes this excellently:
Düriş kazan yi-yidür bir gönül ele getür25
Toil, earn; spend on yourself and others; win someone’s heart.
“Dürüşmek” means to strive. Work, earn; spend from your halal earnings and share with others! Win someone’s heart, be the recipient of someone’s supplication; have them pray for you saying, “May Allah be pleased with you!”
Shaykh Ibrahim b. Adham worked during the day and earn a livelihood. He would buy food and drinks from the marketplace, put these into his woven basket and take his earnings in the form of food and share it with the dervishes in the lodge where he lived. . He would earn, spend from what he earned, and share it with others.
It is very important to attain halal earnings. That is why the people of tasawwuf each had their own profession. Due to this, tasawwuf has been integrated with business organizations. Indeed, Akhī Awrān is known as the father of professional guilds and trades organizations.
A man could be a dervish, shaykh or great scholar, yet he has his own halal means of earning and spends from it. He earns and shares what he earns with others. This was why some were called attār, “a person who sells medicine, antidotes, herbs, incense etc.” such as Farīduddīn Attār...
Khayruddīn Nassāj... Nassāj means “weaver.” Abu Bakr Warrāq... Haddād... Haddād, means “blacksmith.” Sayyid Amir Kulāl, the shaykh of Bahā’uddīn Naqshband. Kulāl means “potter.” Even though he had another means of income, he would make and sell pottery in order to earn a halal source of income.
As for Ahmad Yasawī, he would carve spoons and make ladles out of wood... he did not go to sell them himself. He is reported to have owned an ox. He would place them in the saddlebag of his ox and urge it to go... the animal would roam around the marketplace so that those who want a spoon/ladle could get it and leave the money in the saddlebag. He never involved himself with trading. He accepted whatever anyone placed in the saddlebag and use this as his means of livelihood. Eating from what one has lawfully earned, not to be a burden upon others, on the contrary, to be able to help others...
One of their main characteristics is that they are not concerned with this world and worldly possessions. They do not visit the sultans. The sultans want to visit them, yet they do not accept.
Sultan Sanjar sent sixty thousand gold coins to Yusuf Hamadānī saying, “Spend this on the dervishes!”
Later, he ordered, “Write for us the biography of this hardworking person who lives according to the sharia and follows the sunnah!”
They asked, “Our Shaykh, should we write it? The Sultan told us to.”
He replied, “I have nothing to write to him except for my faults!” When they insisted, he said, “Write what you see!”
Naturally, when they received money it was distributed among the poor; they cared for the needy and feed the orphans. But they continued to wear patchy clothes, fast and walk around in a state of hunger.
An important gesture of Shaykh Ahmad Yasawī; at the age of 63 he dug an underground place of worship similar to a grave to which he descended with a ladder and spent most of his remaining life there. His date of death has been said to be 1166; yet, there is no such date... Whereas in his hikma writings, there are records that he was 125... this is possible. These blessed people live a long life. When you study the lives of sultans, you see they died at the age of 42, 47, 49... If you study the lives of the Ottoman sultans statistically, there is so much glory, honor, reputation, luxurious living... But they died young.
Scholars live long lives. They live long because Islam is the prescription for both a man’s mental and physical health. I believe that he lived for 125 years. In the phrase “Pîr-i Türkistân” (the Leader of the Turkestan region) this is naturally the meaning of a tariqa leader, but I can also imagine a sacred person walking stooped over at the age of 125 years old. He could have lived that long. If this is recorded in the hikma writings, then this information is acceptable. It is possible; this is not an age impossible to reach.
There are no records available regarding his death date. But it is clear that he died in the city of Yasi. Yasi is an important city and the capital city of Oguz Kagan and others. Sayram is also important, however Yasi is an important place that was the cultural center of earlier empires. At the present there may be no trace of these.
We should compare the poems in the Divân-ı Hikmet to the poems of Yunus Emre! This is very important, as some of the poems of Yunus Emre appear to be the translation of some of the hikma writings from the Divân-ı Hikmet. You study, read these.. exactly like the poems of Yunus... then you think, “So Yunus got the same idea from here, he simply worded them in Anatolian Turkish.” There is such a close relationship between the Divân-ı Hikmet and Yunus Emre.
There are a few examples I discovered, but these examples may have been reproduced. It is clear from this that Yunus was really devoted to Khawaja Ahmad Yasawī.
Shaykh Ahmad Yasawī wrote hikma writings. He taught people who attained perfection, who are friends of Allah (awliyā’ullah)...
Something caught my attention. When Yazıcıoğlu Muhammed wrote Muhammediyye, he says in his introduction that, “I saw the Messenger of Allah in my dream, he commanded and I wrote.”
They do not write books without reason. They write after receiving a spiritual sign. He saw our Prophet Muhammad in a dream, he wrote the Muhammediyye upon his command, then took it to his Shaykh Hājī Bayram Walī... the response of Shaykh Hājī Bayram Walī is important... He held the book and said, “O son! Instead of occupying yourself with such writings you should have dedicated yourself to teaching a single soul!”
These blessed scholars consider teaching people extremely important.
We consider it important to write books in this age. I personally think this is very important. I fear that there are things we have not convyed. It saddens me that many people die before they get a chance to share their knowledge. I think we need to write. As for Hājī Bayram Walī, this is what he says.
This is their mentality; to teach a person so that he attains perfection in character (he becomes kāmil)... because such a kāmil person teachesthousands of people. You send him somewhere, then he creates a colony where he goes. The shaykh of ‘Abdulahad Nūrī Effendi sent him to the Island of Mytilene... he was the means of many people accepting Islam there.
Since it is important to teach people, their works are the khalifas they have taught. We know that Hājī Bayram Walī, the hero saints of Khorasan, other spiritual saints, and most of the people who came to Anatolia to conquer it came upon the indication of Shaykh Ahmad Yasawī. This is written in Menâkıb-ı Hacı Bektâş-ı Velî, and this is correct according to history. Although the anecdotes may be exaggerated, it is clear that he indicated towards Anatolia. As those regions were more or less solved and the horizon of the major conquests was Anatolia, he guided his murids saying, “Head that way!”
Shaykh Ahmad Yasawī was the spiritual conqueror of Anatolia. Indeed, he sent them, he gave the indication and the conquests were completed after centuries of war.
Shaykh Ahmad Yasawī has another work titled Fakrnâme...
This was prepared for publication by Kemal Eraslan.26 In the introduction it states, “This work was dictated by Shaykh Ahmad Yasawī of such and such qualities.”
It clearly relates that “Ahmad Yasawī said these lines” in the following introduction:
“Ammâ bilgil ki bu risâleyi kutbu’l-aktâb, server-i meşâ yih, sultânü’l-evliyâ ve burhânü’l-etkıyâ, ferzend-i Hân-ı Hazret-i Sultânü’l-Enbiyâ hazretleri, Hazret-i Sultan Hâce Ahmed-i Yesevî andan ayıtıbdurlar kim...”
However, Kemal Eraslan himself rejects that the Fakrnâme belongs to Shaykh Ahmad Yasawī. Fuad Köprülü also has a similar opinion. They reject it because it is not recorded in the old texts and hikma compilations.
The Fakrnâme is not a part of the Divân-ı Hikmet, rather it is a separate work.
They consider it unauthentic, saying “it is not his, someone fabricated this” solely based on their own reasons. In the latest Kazan publications, Fakrnâme is included at the beginning of the Divân-ı Hikmet. It was included for a reason. They would not say “Ahmad Yasawī says such and such” for no reason. In old works the introduction is extremely important. In the work’s introduction it is apparent that this work belongs to Ahmad Yasawī. In this sense, the introduction is the only source.
Fakrnâme is a separate work. It is in accordance with Ahmad Yasawī’s main opinions on tasawwuf; it is not contrary to these opinions. It should not be rejected at an instant. This is the first point.
There is a second point that they fail to acknowlege.
One of Hājī Baktāsh Walī’s works is similar to the Fakrnâme.
In other words, a section in the Makâlât is similar to the Fakrnâme. “A servant reaches Allah in four stages: sharia, tariqa, ma‘rifa (gnosis), haqiqa (reality). Each stage has ten stations.” The Fakrnâme says the same thing. It also says that “the servant reaches Allah through four doors.” Ahmad Yasawī says “there are forty stations.”
In conclusion, these two works resemble each other. Hājī Baktāsh Walī lived in the thirteenth century. That means that a similar work existed in the world during the thirteenth century. There are also reports that Hājī Baktāsh Walī came from Khorasan and was guided to Yasawī by Luqmān Paranda. Due to such evidence, we cannot reject the Fakrnâme just because it was included in the nineteenth and twentieth century editions of the Divân-ı Hikmet. It dates back centuries before. The work of Hājī Baktāsh Walī – who is among the Yasawī devishes in Anatolia – states that there are forty stations... this is also stated in the Divân-ı Hikmet... The words of sharia, tariqa, ma‘rifa (gnosis), haqiqa (reality) are also stated and in the same way, Ahmad Yasawī states that they are complementary to each other. Naturally, Hājī Baktāsh Walī states the same in his Makâlât.
Therefore, we are able to date this issue to before the nineteenth century; it dates all the way back to the thirteenth century. We see a manifestation of this in Hājī Baktāsh Walī, who is also Yasawī and sent to Anatolia. In this respect, the ideas of Kemal Eraslan and Fuad Köprülü are incorrect and are unacceptable. Fakrnâme is a work that can be dated back to the thirteenth century.
If this is compared to the sixteenth century work Cevâhirü’l-ebrâr, similar works also appear. What I am trying to say is this: as we understand from the Makâlât of Hājī Baktāsh Walī, Ahmad Yasawī may have another work on tasawwuf like the Fakrnâme. Fazlullah, the author of the Mihmannāma Bukhārā, says that when he visited the tomb of Yasawī, he saw a very beautiful and excellent work on tasawwuf belonging to the Yasawī order.
In this case, there are a number of old works that have been lost or divided.
In the compilations called Divân-ı Hikmet, there are poems that belong to Shaykh Ahmad Yasawī, but not all of them are his. It was compiled as a collection with the contributions of Yasawī dervishes. This is known. These could have been seperated.
As a clue of them beingseperated, we can say that “Hikma writings that resemble Yunus Emre are old.” Since it is certain that Yunus Emre benefitted from the hikma writings, we can accept the criterion that the parts of the hikma writings that bear the same ideas as Yunus, go back to Ahmad Yasawī. Fakrnâme could also be a work that consists of Ahmad Yasawī’sviews on tasawwuf.
* *Tarihî ve Tasavvufî Şahsiyetler, Istanbul: Server İletişim, 2015, 4th Edition, p. 113-140.
1. Bursalı Mehmed Tâhir, Osmanlı Müellifleri, I, 12.
2. The author of the work mentioned is Vehbi Vakkasoğlu.
3. For more information see: Naim-Bek Nurmuhammedoğlu, Hoca Ahmed Yesevî Türbesi (prep. Hayati Bice), Ankara 1991.
4. Sūra an-Nūr, 24:35. This is a phrase inspired from the verse “Light upon light.”
5. Bukhārī, “Bad’ul wahy”, 1; Muslim, “‘Imāra”, 155.
6. Sūra adh-Dhāriyāt, 51:56.
7. Sūra Hūd, 11:7; Sūra al-Mulk, 67:2.
8. Sūra an-Nisā’, 4:48, 116.
9. Mālik, “Qur’ān”, 32; “Hajj”, 246; ‘Abdurrazzāq, IV, 378, hadith no: 8125; Bayhaqī, as-Sunan al-Kubrā, IV, 284; V, 117.
10. Bukhārī, “Salāt”, 28; Ibn Khuzayma, IV, 7, hadith no: 2247; Tirmidhī, “Īmān”, 2, hadith no: 2608; Abū Dāwūd, “Jihād”, 95, hadith no: 2642; Nasā’ī, “Jihād”, 1, hadith no: 3092; “Tahrīmuddam”, 1, hadith no: 3964-3965, 3967; “Īmān”, 15, hadith no: 5000; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, III, 199, hadith no: 12990; III, 224-225, hadith no: 13281; Tahāwī, Sharhu Ma‘āni al-Āthār, III, 215, Hākim, I, 544, hadith no: 1427; Bayhaqī, as-Sunan al-Kubrā, II, 3, hadith no: 2031; III, 92, hadith no: 4921; VII, 4, hadith no: 12897; VIII, 177; Abū Ya‘lā, al-Musnad, I, 69, hadith no: 68.
11. The work titled Majmū‘at al-Wathā’iqi as-Siyāsiyya li al-‘Ahdi an-Nabawiyyi wa al-Khilāfati ar-Rāshidawas authored by Muhammad Hamidullah. Dāru an-Nafā’ith, 6th edition, 1987 (7th edition, 1990).
12. Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-Ghāba, IV, 373-374, trans. no: 4279. He was the governor of Medina during the rule of Ali (ra). During the rule of Mu‘āwiya he became a martyr at Samarqand, where he travelled to with Saīd, the son of Uthmān (ra).
13. Ali al-Muttaqī, Kanz al-‘Ummāl, X, 235, hadith no: 28677. The part “al-‘Ulamā’u warathatu al-anbiyā’” is from Ahmad b. Hanbal, V, 196, hadith no: 21763, within a long narration from Abū ad-Dardā’ (ra). See: Abū Dāwūd, “Ilm”, 1, hadith no: 3641; Tirmidhī, “Ilm”, 19, hadith no: 2682; Ibn Māja, “Iftitāh”, 17, hadith no: 223; Ibn Hibbān, I, 289, hadith no: 88.
14. Abū Nu‘aym, Fadhīlatu al-Ādilīn, pp. 185-186; ‘Irāqī states that: “This is mentioned within the takhrīj of the Ihya hadiths, ‘Uqaylī mentions it in his Dhu‘afā’ and Ibn al-Jawzī in his Mawdhū‘āt.” See: ‘Ajlūnī, Kashf al-Khafā’, hadith no: 1748, 1838.
15. Ibn ‘Asākir, TārīkhuDimashq, XIV, 267; Qudhā‘ī, Musnad ash-Shihāb, I, 100, hadith no: 115. ‘Ajlūnī points out that ‘Uqaylī narrates this hadith in his Dhu‘afā’ relating it to Qudhā‘ī and Ibn ‘Asākir. He also adds that ‘Āmirī grades this narration as hasan. See: Kashf al-Khafā’, hadith no: 1749.
16. Since the hadith is narrated by Ibn an-Najjār (in his Tārīkh), ‘Ajlūnī explains that its narrators are thiqa. See: Kashf al-Khafā’, hadith no: 1746.
17. For the hadith narrated by Abū Rāfī‘ (ra), see: Tabarānī, al-Mu‘jam al-Kabīr, I, 315, hadith no: 930; Hākim, III, 690, hadith no: 6537; Haythamī points out that the narrators within Tabarānī’s chain are thiqa, see: Majma‘u az-Zawāid, V, 602.
18. Sūra Yāsīn, 36:69.
19. Muslim, “Masājid”, 5-8; Nasā’ī, “Jihād”, 1, hadith no: 3087; Ibn Māja, “Tahāra”, 90, hadith no: 567; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, II, 250, hadith no: 7397; II, 442, hadith no: 9666; II, 501-502, hadith no: 10465; II, 411-412, hadith no: 9308: II, 396, hadith no: 9115; II, 268, hadith no: 7620; II, 314, hadith no: 8135; II, 264, hadith no: 7575; II, 250, hadith no: 7397; II, 240, hadith no: 7265; ‘Abdurrazzāq, XI, 99, hadith no: 20033.
20. Sūra Baqara, 2:269.
21. See: Münevver Tekcan, Hakîm Ata ve Bakırğan Kitabı, Unpublished PhD Thesis, Konya 1997.
22. For the only and author’s copy of the manuscript see: Süleymaniye Library, Fatih, nr. 430-432.
23. The work was published in 1995. See: Ahmad b. Mahmud b. Hacı Şah Hazînî Kuşeyrî İskenderî, Cevâhirü’l-ebrâr min emvâci’l-bihâr: Yesevî Menâkıbnâmesi (prep. Cihan Okuyucu), Erciyes Üniversitesi Gevher Nesibe Tıb Tarihi Enstitüsü Yayınları, Kayseri 1995.
24. The texts of the mentioned talks have been published together with other articles in the work titled Ahmed-i Yesevî Hayatı Eserleri Tesirleri (prep. Mehmet Şeker, Necdet Yılmaz; Seha Neşriyat, Istanbul 1996).
25. Yûnus Emre Dîvânı, IV, 482.
26. See: Kemal Eraslan, “Yesevî’nin Fakrnâmesi”, İstanbul Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Türk Dili ve Edebiyatı Dergisi, Issue 22 (1974-76), pp. 45-120.
Prof. Dr. M. Es'ad Coşan (Rh.a.)